01 September – 05 September 2023 The Hindu Newspaper Analysis

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With reference to India, the terms ‘Halbi, Ho, and Kui’ pertain to (2021)

  1. dance forms of Northwest India
  2. musical instruments
  3. pre-historic cave painting
  4. tribal languages
Ancient Sanskrit literatureWritten by

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None 

Prelims Specific News Items

Project TAMARA

Technology Development Board (TDB) of Ministry of Science & Technology supports the Waterbody Management Project “TAMARA” with 89 Lakhs out of 150 lakhs.

  • Why is in news? TDB-DST backs Innovative Waterbody Management Project “TAMARA” with ₹89 Lakh Funding Support
  • As the world grapples with the challenges of managing dwindling water resources, the endeavours of the Government of India assume even greater significance.
  • One of the significant initiatives is the AMRUT 2.0 mission, which has the specific goal of preserving valuable water bodies and promoting circular water economy.
  • This mission serves a twofold purpose: revitalising water bodies and reducing water waste, all while improving urban planning strategies.
  • This aligns perfectly with the concept of the Blue Economy, emphasising the sustainable utilisation of ocean resources for economic development while maintaining the well-being of marine ecosystems.
  • In a significant move towards responsible waterbody management and environmental protection, the Technology Development Board (TDB) is supporting M/s Bariflo Labs Private Limited, Odisha, for their project called “Development and Commercialization of Intelligent Water Body Management System (IWMS) -TAMARA.

RAMBHA-LP on-board Chandrayaan-3 measures near-surface plasma content

First in-situ measurements of the surface-bound Lunar plasma environment over the south polar region have been carried out by the Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive ionosphere and Atmosphere – Langmuir Probe (RAMBHA-LP) payload onboard Chandrayaan-3 Lander.

Langmuir (after Irving Langmuir) probe is a device used for characterising a plasma.

Irving Langmuir was an American chemist, physicist, and engineer. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1932 for his work in surface chemistry. 

Nasha Roko Committee

A vigilant wave is sweeping through villages in Punjab to tackle the decade-old drug problem.

  • About – It is an informal committee to stop the use and sale of drugs.
  • Against – It act against the drugs Chitta and the prescription-only pharma drug, pregabalin.
  • Campaign – ‘Nasha roko, rozgaar do’ (stop addiction, provide employment) campaign was started to end the drugs.
Nasha Roko Committee

Only 250 gm or above of heroin is considered a commercial quantity under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act.

Cauvery Water Management Authority

  • Origin – In exercise of the powers conferred by section 6A of the Inter-State River Water Disputes Act, 1956, Cauvery Water Management Scheme is introduced on 1st June, 2018.
  • The ‘Cauvery Water Management Authority’ (CWMA) is constituted under this scheme.
  • Ministry – Ministry of Jalshakti.
  • Composition
    • Chairman (5 years or till 65 years of age whichever is earlier).
    • 2 whole time members (3 years extendable upto 5 years)
    • 2 part time members from centre’s side,
    • 4 part time members from party states.
  • Functions – The Authority shall exercise such power and shall discharge such duty as modified by the Hon’ble Supreme Court vide Order in relation to storage, appointment, regulation and control of Cauvery river.
  • It also envisages the planning, construction and maintenance of the projects will be carried out by each State or Union territory administration through its own agencies.
  • The authority has also been tasked to advise the states to take suitable measures to improve water use efficiency, by way of
    • Promoting micro-irrigation (drip and sprinkler),
    • Change in cropping pattern,
    • Improved agronomic practices,
    • System deficiency correction and
    • Command area development.
  • It has to also prepare an annual report covering the activities of the authority for the preceding year.
  • Meetings of the Committee – The Committee shall meet once in ten days during the months of June and October.
  • In case of any exigency, a minimum of 48 hours notice shall be given for holding a meeting.


Why in News :- Aditya-L1 will be launched with the PSLV-XL Variant (PSLV-C57) Launch Vehicle.

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is the third generation launch vehicle of India. It is the first Indian launch vehicle to be equipped with liquid stages.

After its first successful launch in October 1994, PSLV emerged as a reliable and versatile workhorse launch vehicle of India. The vehicle has launched numerous Indian and foreign customer satellites. Besides, the vehicle successfully launched two spacecraft “Chandrayaan-1 in 2008 and Mars Orbiter Spacecraft in 2013″that later travelled to Moon and Mars respectively. Chandrayaan-1 and MOM were feathers in the hat of PSLV.

The launch of PSLV-C48 marks the 50th Launch of PSLV. Besides, the vehicle successfully launched two spacecraft ” Chandrayaan-1 in 2008 and Mars Orbiter Spacecraft in 2013″that later traveled to Moon and Mars respectively

PSLV earned its title ‘the workhorse of ISRO’ through consistently delivering various satellites into low earth orbits, particularly the IRS Series of satellites

Due to its unmatched reliability, PSLV has also been used to launch various satellites into Geosynchronous and Geostationary orbits, like satellites from the IRNSS Constellation.

PSLV-XL : PSLV-XL is the upgraded version of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle in its standard configuration boosted by more powerful, stretched strap-on boosters with 12 tonne propellant load.

Various important missions of PSLV XL Variants

MissionLaunch Vehicle (XL)LocationYear
Chandrayaan–1PSLV C-11First mission to moon2008
MangalyaanPSLV- C25First mission to Mars2013
AstroSatPSLV-C30India’s first dedicated Space Astronomy Observatory2015
EOS-06 satellite, and 8 nano-satellitesPSLV-C54To orbit around the earth.2022
TeLEOS-2PSLV-C55To observe Earth2023
DS-SARPSLV-C56To observe Earth2023
Aditya L1 missionPSLV-C57First mission to Sun2023

Hollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary

About Hollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary:-

  • Location: Jorhat district of Assam.
  • The Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary was renamed in
  • It was formerly known as the Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary or Hollongapar Reserve Forest.
  • It is an isolated protected area of evergreen forest.


  • The upper canopy of the forest is dominated by the Hollong tree, while the Nahar dominates the middle canopy.
  • The lower canopy consists of evergreen shrubs and herbs.


  • The sanctuary has a rich biodiversity and is home to the only apes in India, the western Hoolock, as well as the only nocturnal primate found in the northeast Indian states, the Bengal slow loris.
  • Other animals: Stump-tailed macaque, northern pig-tailed macaque, eastern Assamese macaque, rhesus macaque, capped langur, etc.

About Hoolock Gibbon:-

  • It is the only ape found in India.
  • It is native to eastern Bangladesh, Northeast India, Myanmar, and Southwest China.
  • Like all apes, they are extremely intelligent, with distinct personalities and strong family bonds.
  • It is categorized into Western Hoolock Gibbon and Eastern Hoolock Gibbon.

Western Hoolock Gibbon:-

  • It is found in all the states of the northeast, restricted between the south of the Brahmaputra River and east of the Dibang River.
  • Conservation Status:-
  • IUCN Red List: Endangered

Eastern Hoolock gibbon:-

  • It inhabits specific pockets of Arunachal Pradesh and Assam in India, and southern China, and northeast Myanmar.
  • Conservation Status:-
    • IUCN Red List: Vulnerable

Sixth census on minor irrigation

Context: The Jal Shakti Ministry has released the sixth census on minor irrigation schemes report.

Key Highlights of the report:-

  • As per the report, 14 million minor irrigation (MI) schemes have been reported in the country.
  • The report also revealed that there has been an increase of about 1.42 million in MI schemes as compared to the previous census.
    • Minor Irrigation Schemes(MI): those structures either in groundwater or in the surface water category having culturable command areas up to 2,000 hectares.
  • Out of these 93 million are Ground Water (GW) and 1.21 million are Surface Water (SW) schemes.
    • Ground Water (GW) schemes: provide irrigation throughout the year.
    • Surface Water (SW) scheme: comprises surface flow schemes and surface lift irrigation schemes.
  • For the first time, the information about the gender of the owner of the MI scheme was also collected in the case of individual ownership.
  • Out of all the individually owned schemes, 1 percent are owned by women.
  • Minor irrigation (MI) schemesUttar Pradesh possesses the largest number of MI schemes in the country.
    • It was followed by Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.
  • Ground Water (GW) ranking: The same ranking of states as MI follows for the Ground Water (GW)
  • Surface Water (SW) ranking: Maharashtra leads in SW schemes followed by Karnataka, Telangana, Odisha, and Jharkhand.

About the 6th census on minor irrigation:-


  • Published in 2023.
  • Published by: Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • Past censuses: 1986-87, 1993-94, 2000-01, 2006-07 and 2013-14.
  • Objective: to gather a sound and reliable database for minor irrigation schemes for effective planning and policy making in this sector.
  • The census was conducted under the centrally sponsored scheme “Irrigation Census”.
  • The 6th MI census work was delayed due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • It was executed in 32 States/ UTs across the country.
  • Detailed information on various parameters of Irrigation sources, irrigation potential created (IPC), potential utilized, ownership, holding size of land by owner, windmills, etc. were collected.
    • Irrigation sources: dug well, shallow tube well, medium tube well, deep tube well, surface flow, and surface lift schemes. (‘Per Drop More Crop’)

World Sanskrit Day 2023

Context: The World Sanskrit Day 2023 was celebrated in Colombo recently.

About World Sanskrit Day 2023:-

  • Venue: Colombo.
  • Celebrated on: 31st August,2023.
  • The event was organized by the cultural arm of the High Commission of India, Swami Vivekananda Cultural Centre (SVCC) in collaboration with 12 universities and institutes of Sri Lanka.
  • The event marked the silver jubilee of SVCC.
  • It featured a collaborative effort with several prestigious Sri Lankan universities.


  • This celebration of Sanskrit underscores the profound cultural and linguistic ties between India and Sri Lanka.
  • It emphasizes the importance of Sanskrit as a shared heritage.

World Sanskrit Day:-

  • It is an annual celebration observed on the day of Shravan Poornima. ( Sanskrit Grams Programme: Uttarakhand)
    • Shravan Poornima: This is considered to be one of the most sacred days in the month of Shravan and is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
  • Historical Background: The Ministry of Education declared World Sanskrit Day back in 1969 on the occasion of Shraavana Poornima.
  • On the day of World Sanskrit Day in India, Panini is remembered and honoured for his contribution to this ancient language.
    • Panini: a Sanskrit linguist, who wrote the Sanskrit grammar guide named the

About Sanskrit:-

  • Sanskrit is among the oldest surviving languages(What is ‘Sanskritisation)
  • It is said that Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-Germanic or Indo-Aryan family of languages.
  • It is around 3,500 years old.
  • This makes the Sanskrit language one of the oldest in the world.
  • It is a sacred language in several traditions.
  • It is a repository of ancient knowledge including the Vedas and other renowned literary works such as the Yoga Shastra.
  • It is also known as the mother of many present-day languages such as Hindi and Sinhala.

Classical Languages of India :-

There are six languages that are considered the Classical Languages of India namely- Tamil, Telugu, Sanskrit, Kannada, Malayalam, and Odia.

First Tamil and Sanskrit were designated as the classical languages respectively in 2004 and 2005, and after Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam, and Odia were considered as classical languages.

If the criteria issued by the Ministry of Culture are satisfied, then the Government of India grants the status of Classical Languages of India. The Rajya Sabha came up with criteria that a language must fulfill in order to become one of the classical languages in India.

The Rajya Sabha has released the criteria for giving the status of ‘Classical Language of India’ such as:

  • It should be documented in the early texts
  • It should be unique
  • The body of the texts must be valued by the speakers of that heritage.

Bhoramdeo Wildlife Sanctuary (BWS)

Context: Recently, the Chhattisgarh High Court dismissed a petition that aimed to designate the Bhoramdeo Wildlife Sanctuary (BWS) as a tiger reserve.

Background of the issue:-

  • Former Chhattisgarh chief minister Raman Singh had cleared the proposal for notifying the Bhoramdeo Wildlife Sanctuary as a tiger reserve in 2017 following a recommendation of India’s National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) as it was argued that it forms a critical part of the tiger habitat in the central Indian landscape.
  • However, the idea was dropped in 2018.
  • One of the reasons that was reportedly behind shelving the decision is that the local population living in and around the sanctuary area mainly has Baiga tribals who are not interested in relocating elsewhere.
  • As a result, the government is also not keen on displacing them ultimately resulting in the government ignoring the NTCA’s request.
  • Subsequently, in 2019, a wildlife activist filed public interest litigation in the Chhattisgarh High Court, which states that non-compliance with the NTCA’s recommendation is illegal as it is mandatory under the provisions of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 for the state to comply with the tiger authority to declare any area as a tiger reserve. ( National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) on Tribal Rights)

About Bhoramdeo Wildlife Sanctuary (BWS):-

  • Location: Kawardha district, Chhattisgarh.
  • Naming: It is named after the famous 11th-century, Bhoramdeo Temple which is situated near the Sanctuary.
  • Area: The sanctuary covers an area of approximately 325 square kilometres (125 square miles).
  • Rivers: This wildlife sanctuary is the origin of the Fen and Sankari rivers.
  • Important Landscape: It is characterized by its lush green forests, rolling hills, and the Maikal Range of the Satpura Hills.
  • Vegetation: It offers a mix of dense forests and open grasslands.

Ramon Magsaysay Award

Context: Recently, an Assam-based oncologist was among the winners of the Ramon Magsaysay Award 2023.


  • Oncologist Ravi Kannan, a recipient of India’s fourth-highest civilian award Padma Shri, and the director of Assam’s Cachar Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (CCHRC), has been named one of the four winners of the 2023 Ramon Magsaysay Award.
  • His pioneering efforts have revolutionized cancer treatment in Assam by prioritizing people-centric and pro-poor healthcare solutions.

About Ramon Magsaysay Award:-

  • Established: 1957.
  • Naming: It is named after Ramon Magsaysay.
    • Ramon Magsaysay: the third president of the Republic of the Philippines.
  • It recognizes and honours individuals and organizations in Asia, regardless of race, creed, gender, or nationality, who have achieved distinction and have helped others generously without aiming for public recognition.
  • It is Asia’s equivalent of the Nobel Prize.

Award Categories:-

  • Till 2009: awards were traditionally given in five categories:-
    • These include Government service; public service; community leadership; journalism, literature and creative communication arts; and peace and international understanding.
  • Post-2009: The Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation annually selects the awardees for the field of Emergent Leadership.

Award Decoration:-

  • Awardees are presented with a certificate, a medallion with an embossed image of Ramon Magsaysay, and a cash prize.

Important Indian Awardees: –

  • Till date, India has received a total of 59 awards, while the Philippines has received 65 awards, making it the highest among all countries.
  • Vinoba Bhave (1958)
  • Mother Teresa (1962)
  • Verghese Kurien (1963)
  • Jayaprakash Narayan (1965)
  • Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay (1966)
  • Satyajit Ray (1967)
  • S. Subbalakshmi(1974)
  • Arun Shourie(1982)
  • Kiran Bedi (1994)
  • Mahasweta Devi (1997)
  • Aruna Roy (2000)
  • Rajendra Singh(2001)
  • Arvind Kejriwal (2006)
  • Anshu Gupta of Goonj (2015)
  • Bezwada Wilson, human rights activist (2016)
  • Ravish Kumar, journalist (2019)

Centre’s DIKSHA e-education platform to offer AI help

Source: The post is based on the article “Centre’s DIKSHA e-education platform to offer AI help”  published in The Hindu on 4th September 2023

What is the News?

The National e-Governance Division (NeGD) of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) in India is planning to integrate Personalized Adaptive Learning (PAL) into its existing Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing (DIKSHA) platform.

What is Personalized Adaptive Learning(PAL)?

It is a software-based approach that will allow each student to have an individualized learning experience over the course of the curriculum based on their unique needs and abilities.

What is DIKSHA Platform?

DIKSHA is an initiative of the Ministry of Education for digital online education.

It provides quality e-content for school education in States/UTs and QR coded Energized Textbooks for all grades.

It also has embedded assistive technologies for learners with visual or hearing impairments. 

Apart from this, DIKSHA also hosts 2.43 lakh contributions by 11,624 academics by way of teaching videos, explainers and practice questions. 

How will integration of PAL with DIKSHA platform help?

The integration of PAL into DIKSHA is expected to revolutionize the platform by leveraging artificial intelligence (AI) to cater to the specific learning needs of students.

For example, if a student of Class 9 is learning the Pythagoras theorem and makes a calculation mistake, the AI learning system flags it and loops the student back to a basic video of how to make the calculation.

Adopt a Heritage Program :

What is the News?

The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is set to launch the “Adopt a Heritage 2.0” programme and Indian Heritage app.

What is Adopt a Heritage 2.0 Programme?

The program is a revamped version of the Adopt a Heritage scheme launched in 2017.

Aim: To safeguard India’s diverse cultural heritage by inviting corporate stakeholders to enhance the amenities at over 3,600 monuments spread throughout the country. 

– These monuments not only showcase India’s rich cultural history but also contribute significantly to economic growth.

Under the programme, corporate stakeholders can utilize their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) funds to enhance the amenities at the historical sites.

– This revamped version emphasizes the amenities required for different monuments, as defined by the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (AMASR) Act ,1958. 

– Interested stakeholders can apply to adopt a monument or specific amenities through a dedicated web portal.

– The process for selection will be carried out after due-diligence and discussions with various stakeholders.

– The selected stakeholders will develop, provide and/or maintain amenities in hygiene, accessibility, safety and knowledge categories.

– The term of the appointment will be for a period of five years initially, which may be further extended up to five years.

What is an Indian Heritage app?

Indian Heritage is a user-friendly mobile app.It will showcase the heritage monuments of India. 

The app will feature state-wise details of monuments along with photographs, list of public amenities available, geo-tagged location and feedback mechanism for citizens.

Govt panel to study simultaneous polls

Source: The post is based on the article “Govt panel to study simultaneous polls  published in Livemint on 2nd September 2023

What is the News?

The Government of India has constituted a committee headed by former president of India Ram Nath Kovind to explore the possibility of “One nation, One election”.

What is ‘one nation, one election’?

Source: Hindustan Times

The concept of “one nation, one election” refers to holding simultaneous elections across the country. 

It implies that elections for the Lok Sabha and state assemblies across India will be held simultaneously — with voting presumably taking place around the same time.

What is the history of ‘one nation, one election’?

Simultaneous elections for the Lok Sabha and state assemblies were a norm in India till 1967. The Lok Sabha and state legislatures went to elections together in 1952 and 1957.

In 1959, this cycle was first broken in Kerala when the government of Jawaharlal Nehru used Article 356 of the Constitution to dismiss the government of Chief Minister E M S Namboodiripad.

In the 1967 elections, the Congress party suffered defeat in many states. But the governments were unstable, and many of these Assemblies were dissolved before their terms were over, resulting in the separation of the election cycles of many states from that of the Lok Sabha.

How has matters moved on One Nation One Election since this government came in power?

Parliamentary Standing committee report: In 2015, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice, headed by E M Sudarsana Natchiappan, compiled a report on ‘Feasibility of Holding Simultaneous Elections to House of People (Lok Sabha) and State Legislative Assemblies’.

– The committee said that holding simultaneous elections to Lok Sabha and state assemblies would reduce: (i) the massive expenditure that is currently incurred for the conduct of separate

elections; (ii) the policy paralysis that results from the imposition of the Model Code of Conduct during election time; (iii) impact on delivery of essential services and (iv) burden on crucial manpower that is deployed during election time.

What are the arguments against One Nation One Election?

The arguments against One Nation One Election include: complexity of such an exercise, the widely held view that simultaneous polls would benefit the nationally dominant party at the cost of regional players and the complications that would arise if any of the governments were to collapse before completing its term.

What did the Law Commission say on the One Nation One Election?

In a draft report in 2018, the Law Commission headed by Justice B S Chauhan held that simultaneous elections could not be held within the existing framework of the Constitution.

These could be held together through appropriate amendments to the Constitution, the Representation of the People Act 1951, and the Rules of Procedure of Lok Sabha and state Assemblies.At least 50% of the states may ratify the constitutional amendments. 

The Commission recommended that all elections due in a calendar year be conducted together. 

Since a no-confidence motion, if passed, may curtail the term of Lok Sabha or an Assembly, the Law Commission recommended replacing the “no-confidence motion” with a “constructive vote of no-confidence” through appropriate amendments — a government may only be removed if there is confidence in an alternative government.

G-20 Cultural Corridor

What is the News?

Several objects of cultural significance will be displayed at the special Culture Corridor which will be set up at the venue of the G-20 summit in New Delhi.

What is a G20 Culture Corridor?

The Ministry of Culture has conceptualized the Culture Corridor – G20 Digital Museum to represent and celebrate the shared heritage of G20 members and invitee countries. 

This project is based on India’s G20 theme Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ and the Culture Working Group’s (CWG) hallmark campaign ‘Culture Unites All”.

The Culture Corridor will incorporate iconic and notable cultural objects and heritage of the G20 members and 9 invitee countries.

For this, submissions were requested from G-20 countries and nine guest nations under five categories: 1) Object of Cultural Significance (as a physical display) 2) Iconic Cultural Masterpiece (as a digital display) 3) Intangible Cultural Heritage (digital display) 4) Natural Heritage (digital display) and 5) Artefact Related to Democratic Practices (physical or digital display)

What will be displayed at the Culture Corridor being set up at the venue of the G-20 summit in New Delhi?

India: The Rig Veda manuscript will be exhibited with a special emphasis on the shloka that encourages humanity to come together.

– Ancient text Ashtadhyayi authored by Sanskrit philologist and scholar Panini will also be displayed.

– In the intangible heritage category, India will be displaying yoga, the Kumbh Mela, Vedic chanting, the lost wax bronze casting method, and the double ikkat weaving Patan Patola of Gujarat.

– In the natural heritage category, India will display the Himalayas, the Ganges, the Indian Ocean, the Living Root Bridge of Meghalaya and the Royal Bengal Tiger.

Other Countries: 1) ‘Mrs Ples’– a 2.5-million-year-old fossil cranium from South Africa 2) 18th century Fahua lidded porcelain jay of China 3) copy of the Magna Carta issued by the King of England 

4) copy of the Charters of Freedom (Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and Bill of Rights 1776-1791) of the US 5) copy of Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen National Assembly (France, 1789)  6) poster of the first democratic general election of Republic of Korea held in May 1948 among others.

SC Judgement on Children from Void Marriages

What is the News?

The Supreme Court held that a child born of a void or voidable marriage can inherit their parents’ share in a joint Hindu family property governed by the Mitakshara law.

However, the court clarified that such a child would not be entitled to rights in or to the property of any other person in the family.

What is a Voidable Marriage?

A voidable marriage is one that is made invalid by the husband or wife through a decree. A void marriage is invalid at its very inception.

What is Mitakshara law?

There are mainly two schools in Hindu law, the Mitakshara & the Dayabhaga which concern the law of inheritance.

Mitakshara school is practiced in all of India except in the state of West Bengal and Assam.In this school of inheritance, property is inherited by the successors (coparceners) only if they were born in the family of the property owners.

Dayabhaga is mainly practiced in Assam & West Bengal.In this school of inheritance, the property goes to the successors (coparceners) only when the property owner is dead.

Under the Dayabhaga, a partition of the coparcenary property can be imposed by any adult coparcener whether male or female.

But under the Mitakshara, as it existed before the 2005 amendment of the Hindu Succession Act, a female could not at all be a coparcener and was therefore not entitled to partition.But after the amendment, a woman may also be a coparcener today.

What did the Supreme Court say on inheritance for children born from void marriages?

Section 16 of the Hindu Marriage Act grants legitimacy to children born from void or voidable marriages.

The court said that the intent of granting legitimacy to such children in the Hindu Marriage Act should also be reflected in the Hindu Succession Act, which governs inheritance.

This is because children born from void or voidable marriages come within the ambit of “legitimate kinship” and cannot be regarded as illegitimate by the Hindu Succession Act when it comes to inheritance.

The court also noted that after the enactment of the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005, the share of a deceased person in a joint Hindu family governed by Mitakashara law can be devolved to his heirs by testamentary or intestate succession.

Prior to the amendment, the devolution was only through survivorship.Besides, the amendment gave equal rights of succession to women as well as men.

NCERT now Deemed University

What is the News?

The Union Minister for Education has announced that the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has been given the status of a Deemed-to-be-University. 

What is ‘Deemed-to-be-university’ status?

The Central Government on the advice of the University Grants Commission (UGC) can declare an Institution of Higher Education other than universities working at a very high standard in a specific area of study as an Institution ‘Deemed-to-be-university’.

Institutions that are ‘deemed-to-be-university’ enjoy the academic status and privileges of a university.

Deemed to be universities like other universities have the autonomy of offering various courses and therefore, preparing students for various examinations and awards. 

These institutions can also design their own syllabus and courses to prepare the students to foray into diverse fields after the completion of their study.

What is NCERT?

NCERT is an autonomous organization set up in 1961 by the Government of India to assist and advise the Central and State Governments on policies and programmes for qualitative improvement in school education.

The Executive Committee (EC) is the highest decision-making body of NCERT and is chaired by the Education Minister.

Special Session of Parliament

What is the News?

The Union Minister for Parliamentary Affairs has announced that a “special session” of Parliament would be held from September 18 to 22,2023.

When does Parliament meet?

India’s Parliament has no fixed calendar of sittings.The Government determines the date and duration of parliamentary sessions.

The Cabinet Committee on Parliamentary Affairs takes this decision. It currently has ten Ministers, including those for Defence, Home, Finance, Agriculture, Tribal Affairs, Parliamentary Affairs, and Information and Broadcasting.

The Law Minister and the Minister of State for External Affairs are special invitees to the Committee.

The President is informed about the Committee’s decision who then summons Members of Parliament to meet for the session.

What does the Constitution say on Parliamentary sessions?

The Constitution specifies that six months should not elapse between two parliamentary sessions.

This provision was borrowed from the Government of India Act of 1935.

What is a special session of Parliament?

The Constitution does not use the term “special session”.The term sometimes refers to sessions the government has convened for specific occasions like commemorating parliamentary or national milestones.

However, Article 352 (Proclamation of Emergency) of the Constitution does refer to a “special sitting of the House”.

Parliament added the part relating to the special sitting through the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978.Its purpose was to add safeguards to the power of proclaiming Emergency in the country.

It specifies that if a Proclamation of Emergency is issued and Parliament is not in session, then one-tenth of Lok Sabha MPs can ask the President to convene a special meeting to disapprove the Emergency.

Walking Leaves

What is the News?

An international research team has identified seven previously unknown species of leaf insects, also known as walking leaves.

What are Walking Leaves?

Source: SciTechDaily

Walking leaves are part of the phasmatodea order.They are also referred to as “phasmids” or “stick and leaf insects.” 

They are known for their unusual appearance as they look confusingly similar to parts of plants such as twigs, bark or in the case of leaf insects as leaves.

They feed on plants and typically inhabit densely vegetated areas. 

Range: Their natural range extends from islands in the Indian Ocean, across parts of mainland South Asia and Southeast Asia, to Papua New Guinea and Australia in the western Pacific.

They are also largely nocturnal, resulting in a relative lack of movement during the day that makes locating them quite difficult in the wild.

Significance: There are around 3,500 known species of stick and leaf insects.But there are currently just over 100 described species of leaf insect.

– Hence, they only make up a small fraction of this diverse family of insects but their spectacular and unexpected appearance makes them unique.

40 per cent elephant corridors report increase in use

What is the News?

Elephant Corridors of India 2023 report has been released.

The report has been prepared by Project Elephant with technical support from the Wildlife Institute of India.

What are Elephant Corridors?

Elephant corridors are linear, narrow, natural habitat linkages that allow elephants to move between secure habitats without being disturbed by humans.

What are the key findings of the Elephant Corridors of India 2023 report?

150 elephant corridors have been identified in 15 elephant-ranging states. 

40% of elephant corridors of India have reported an increase in use by the elephants.

Around 29 corridors – constituting 19% of the total – have recorded a decline in use by the elephants over the years. 

These corridors are primarily affected by encroachment, mining activities, development of linear infrastructure such as roads and railway tracks and other human interventions.

Further, around 10% of the elephant corridors have become impaired over the years.

West Bengal has the highest number (26) of identified elephant corridors in India.

There are six transnational corridors between India and Nepal.

Recommendations: The report has recommended following measures to safeguard corridors.These measures are: Habitat enrichment, accurate demarcation, measures to check human interventions, and legal protection under appropriate laws at the state level.

Thrissur rocks to the rhythm of Pulikkali

Source: The post is based on the article “Thrissur rocks to the rhythm of Pulikkali”  published in The Hindu on 3rd September 2023

What is the News?

The traditional folk dance of Kerala ‘Pulikkali’ was performed on the occasion of Onam.

What is Pulikkali?

Pulikkali (Tiger Dance) is one of the folk art forms of Kerala.

The artists wear a tiger mask, paint their bodies like tigers and dance to the rhythm of traditional percussion instruments such as thakil, udukku and chenda.

It is performed on the fourth day of Onam festival.

It is believed to have originated two centuries ago as a street dance form and became part of Onam celebrations later.

It is said to have been introduced by the erstwhile ruler of Cochin, Maharaja Rama Varma Sakthan Thampuran.

The main theme of this folk art is tiger hunting with participants playing the role of tiger and hunter.

Usually, men and children perform this art form.For the first time, 3 women among a 51-member team participated in the Pulikali at Thrissur in 2016.

Centre’s criminal code bills: Weakening criminal law’s guardrails

About India’s new criminal law

Introduction of Bills: On August 11, the government introduced three new bills to replace three longstanding laws, giving them new names.

Three bills are:

The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita, 2023 (to replace the Indian Penal Code, 1860),

the Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita, 2023 (to replace the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973) and

the Bharatiya Sakshya Bill, 2023 (to replace the Indian Evidence Act, 1872)

Shift in Approach: Traditionally, India had special statutes for complex crimes. Now, these special laws are being incorporated into general criminal law.

Why are there chances of mixing special laws into general ones?

Change in Legislative Practice: Historically, India used special statutes for complex crimes, ensuring both stringent punishments and procedural safeguards. The new bills deviate from this approach.

Treatment of Organised Crime: In the past, organized crime was handled by special legislation like Maharashtra Control of Organised Crime Act, 1999 (MCOCA). The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita, 2023 now includes provisions for organized crime within general law, broadening its definition to include activities like fraud, money laundering, and more.

Absence of Procedural Safeguards: Previously, MCOCA required high-ranking police approvals and had specific safeguards. The new proposed laws lack such detailed procedural protections.

What are the other concerns?

Potential Harm to Innocents: Without the traditional checks and balances, there’s a risk that innocent individuals might be unfairly treated under the new legal framework.

Trust in the Legal System: The dilution of procedural protections and the absence of clear checks can erode public trust in the criminal justice system.

What should be done?

Maintain Distinction: The historical practice of having distinct special statutes for specific crimes should be maintained to ensure checks, balances, and targeted procedural safeguards.

Refine Definitions: The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita, 2023 has broad definitions, especially concerning “organised crime”. This implies a need to make definitions more precise to avoid misinterpretation.

Prioritize Fair Trials: Emphasize and safeguard the principles of a fair trial and the rule of law in any legal reforms.

Gujarat Declaration

World Health Organization (WHO) has recently released the outcome document of first WHO Traditional Medicine Global Summit 2023 in form of “Gujarat Declaration”.

Traditional Medicine summit

  • Organized by – World Health Organization (WHO).
  • Co-hosted by – Ministry of AYUSH.
  • Venue – Gandhinagar, Gujarat.
  • India is the host of WHO-GCTM (Global Centre for Traditional Medicine) as India holds the presidency of the G20 in 2023.
  • India will scale up WHO’s capacities to support member states and take forward the summit action agenda.

Gujarat declaration

  • Aim – It reaffirms global commitment and harness potential of traditional medicine to achieve health and well-being for all.
  • It will serve as a catalyst to harness the potential of traditional medicine through the lens of science and integrate the traditional medicines in national health systems.
  • Gujarat declaration talks about scaling up efforts to further implement:
    • Evidence-based TCIM (Traditional complimentary integrative medicine) interventions,
    • Approaches in support of the goal of universal health coverage (UHC) and
    • All health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Climate Change effect in Polar Bears

Scientists for the first time are able to directly quantify the impact of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions from specific sources on polar bear cub survival.

  • Recent Findings – Researchers estimated the relationship between how long bears fasted and each gigaton of cumulative emissions.
  • It allowed them to calculate the impact of emissions from specific projects on future polar bear cub survival.
  • The study makes a case for rescinding the 2008 opinion barring climate considerations because the Endangered Species Act requires federal agencies to use the best available scientific data.

Polar bears

  • Habitat – They occur in 19 subpopulations throughout the Arctic
  • Food – Ringed seals and Bearded seals and also scavenge carcasses or settle for small mammals, birds, eggs and vegetation.
  • They are the only bear species to be considered marine mammals.
  • Polar bears can swim for long distances and steadily for many hours to get from one piece of ice to another.
  • Threats – The oil and gas industry in arctic comes with the potential risks of habitat destruction of polar bears from oil exploration work.
  • Polar bears can also be exposed to toxic chemicals such as pesticides through their prey, which can affect a bear’s biological functioning and ability to reproduce.

Pradhan Mantri Dakshata Aur Kushalata Sampanna Hitgrahi (PM-DAKSH) Yojana

PM-DAKSH Yojana empowers millions from India’s marginalized communities.

  • Aim – To enhance competency level of the target groups to make them employable both in self- employment and wage-employment for their socio-economic development.
  • Agency – It is a Central Sector Scheme.
  • Launched by – Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment.
  • Implemented by – Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship.
  • Launch – 2020-21.
  • Target Groups – SCs, OBCs, EBCs, DNTs Safai Karamcharis including waste pickers etc.
  • Age criterion – 18-45 years.
  • Income criteria
    • No income limit for SCs, SafaiKaramcharis Including wastepicker and DNT.
    • The annual family income should be below Rs.3 lakh for OBCs and
    • Annual family income should be below Rs.1 lakh for EBCs (Economically Backward Classes).
  • The cost of training is as per common norms issued by Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship and it varies as per duration of the course.
  • Trained candidates will be provided certification after successful completion of training and assessment.

Maritime Infrastructure Perspective Plan (MIPP)

The Minister of State for Defence released the Maritime Infrastructure Perspective Plan (MIPP) 2023-37 at the 2nd edition of the biennial Naval Commanders Conference recently.

  • Aim – MIPP aims to synchronize and enmesh the infrastructure requirements of the Navy through a comprehensive perspective plan model for the next 15 years.
  • The Plan Document is aligned with the Government’s vision on creation of sustainable infrastructure.
  • It is also in compliances with broader policy directives on PM Gati Shakti project, disaster resilience, transition to net zero, etc.

SEBI to introduce One-Hour Trade Settlement

Central Idea

  • SEBI aims to implement a One-Hour trade Settlement by March 2024.
  • Additionally, an Application Supported by Blocked Amount (ASBA)-like facility for secondary market trading is anticipated to launch in January 2024.

Do you know?

India is the first jurisdiction in the globe that has moved to T+1 settlement (trade plus one day).  We are now talking about one-hour settlement and that will be a stepping-stone to instantaneous settlement.

Understanding Trade Settlement

  • Trade settlement involves the exchange of funds and securities on the settlement date.
  • It is considered complete when purchased securities are delivered to the buyer, and the seller receives the funds.
  • India transitioned to a T+1 settlement cycle earlier this year, facilitating faster fund transfers, share deliveries, and operational efficiency.

SEBI’s Stance

  • SEBI believes that achieving instantaneous trade settlement will take additional time due to necessary technology development.
  • Therefore, SEBI plans to implement a one-hour trade settlement before the instantaneous settlement.
  • SEBI expects instantaneous trade settlement to be launched by the end of 2024.

Benefits of One-Hour Trade Settlement

  • In the current T+1 settlement cycle, the seller receives funds in their account the day after a trade.
  • With one-hour settlement, the seller would receive funds within an hour of selling shares, and the buyer would have shares in their demat account within an hour.

Back2Basics: T+1 Settlement Cycle

  • The T+1 settlement cycle means that trade-related settlements must be done within a day, or 24 hours, of the completion of a transaction.
  • For example, under T+1, if a customer bought shares on Wednesday, they would be credited to the customer’s demat account on Thursday.
  • This is different from T+2, where they will be settled on Friday.
  • As many as 256 large-cap and top mid-cap stocks, including Nifty and Sensex stocks, come under the T+1 settlement.
  • Until 2001, stock markets had a weekly settlement system.
  • The markets then moved to a rolling settlement system of T+3, and then to T+2 in 2003.
  • In 2020, Sebi deferred the plan to halve the trade settlement cycle to one day (T+1) following opposition from foreign investors.

Maritime Infrastructure Perspective Plan (2023-37)

Central Idea

  • The Maritime Infrastructure Perspective Plan (MIPP) 2023-37 was unveiled at the Naval Commanders Conference.
  • It signifies a forward-looking strategy aimed at fostering sustainable maritime architecture.

About MIPP

  • Aligned with the overarching vision of the PM Gati Shakti project, this comprehensive plan was introduced by the Minister of State for Defence.
  • The plan’s objectives span over the next 15 years and strive to synergize the Navy’s infrastructure requirements in a dynamic and encompassing model.

Features of the MIPP

  1. Synchronizing Infrastructure Needs:
  • The MIPP 2023-37 envisions an integrated approach to address the Navy’s infrastructure requirements.
  • It aims to harmonize naval infrastructure development over the next 15 years through a meticulously designed perspective plan.
  1. Compliance with Broader Policies:
  • The plan adheres to the broader policy directives of the PM Gati Shakti Project, Disaster Resilience, and Transition to Net Zero, among others.
  • Sustainability and compliance with national policy priorities are key principles underpinning the plan’s formulation.
  1. Modernization Efforts:
  • To accommodate technological advancements and promote self-reliance, the revised “IRS Rules and Regulations Handbook for Construction and Classification of Naval Combatants” was introduced.
  • This handbook reflects the naval shipbuilding industry’s growth and aligns with the philosophy of ‘AatmaNirbharta’ (self-reliance).
  1. Transformational Initiatives:
  • The release of the “Family Logbook for Defence Civilian Personnel of the Indian Navy” serves as a milestone in maintaining personal records efficiently.
  • The launch of the “Electronic Service Document Project” is poised to revolutionize HR record-keeping within the Navy.

Strengthening Indigenous Shipbuilding

  1. Promoting Indigenous Warships:
  • Ajay Bhatt highlighted the Navy’s commitment to self-reliance, stating that the last 33 warships were ‘Made in India’.
  • Of the 63 warships currently under construction, 61 are being built in Indian shipyards, showcasing the nation’s shipbuilding prowess.
  1. Monumental Launches:
  • The President’s launch of Vindhyagiri and the Vice President’s launch of Mahendragiri underscored the strength of the indigenous warship-building enterprise.
india bharat meluha

Central Idea

  • India, with its rich heritage, has borne various names throughout its history, each encapsulating a distinct facet of its identity.
  • The process of naming this diverse land has sparked debates, controversies, and reflections on its collective consciousness.

Historical Evolution of Names

  1. Meluha (Third Millennium BCE):
  • The ancient Mesopotamian texts referenced ‘Meluha’ to denote the Indus Valley Civilization, highlighting India’s antiquity and interactions with ancient civilizations.
  • ‘Meluha’ is believed to have been used to describe the Indus Valley Civilization in texts from the third millennium BCE.
  1. Bharata (Ancient Times to Modern Era):
  • Rooted in Puranic literature and the Mahabharata, ‘Bharata’ resonates with religious and socio-cultural connotations.
  • Associated with a supraregional and subcontinental territory where Brahmanical society prevailed.
  • Evident during the freedom struggle through slogans like ‘Bharat Mata ki Jai’.
  • ‘Bharata’ was derived from the mythological founders of the race, and its popularity during modern times is also due to its usage during the freedom movement.
  1. Aryavarta, Jambudvipa, Nabhivarsa (Ancient Vedic Period):
  • ‘Aryavarta’ referred to the land between the Himalayas and Vindhya ranges, where the Indo-Aryans resided.
  • ‘Jambudvipa’ and ‘Nabhivarsa’ were also used in Vedic texts and Jain literature to signify the subcontinent, emphasizing different cultural contexts.
  1. Hindustan (7th Century BCE):
  • Originated during Persian occupation, ‘Hindustan’ referred to the lower Indus basin.
  • ‘Hind’ in Persian meant ‘Sindhu’ (Indus river), leading to its application to the region beyond Indus.
  • The Persian suffix ‘stan’ (land) was added to form ‘Hindustan’.
  1. India (Ancient to Colonial Era):
  • The Greeks transliterated ‘Hind’ as ‘Indus’, establishing ‘India’ as a name for the region.
  • Colonial usage solidified ‘India’ as a political and geographical term, signifying the subcontinent under British rule.
  • ‘India’ was adopted due to its Graeco-Roman associations, history of use in Europe, and bureaucratic usage such as the Survey of India.

Constitutional Deliberations (1947-1949)

  • The Constituent Assembly engaged in heated debates over the nation’s official name.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru noted the significance of ‘Hindustan’, ‘Bharat’, and ‘India’.
  • Nehru’s book “The Discovery of India” captured the coexistence of these names in the collective consciousness.
  • The Constitution retained ‘India’ and ‘Bharat’, reflecting diverse visions of the nation.
  • The first Article of the Constitution reads, “India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of states.”
Fact for PrelimsIn the ancient Indian text, Vishnu Purana, the name ‘Bharat’ finds mention as the landmass that lies north of the ocean and south of snow mountains. It states:Uttaraṃ yatsamudrasya himādreścaiva dakṣiṇamvarṣaṃ tadbhārataṃ nāma bhāratī yatra santatiḥThis shloka means: “The country (Varsam) that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bharatam; there live the descendants of Bharata.

HC allows Stem Cell Therapy for autistic kids

stem cells

Central Idea

  • The Delhi High Court granted permission for two children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to undergo Stem Cell Therapy for their condition.
  • The court’s decision followed a challenge against the Ethics and Medical Registration Board’s (EMRB) recommendation against stem cell treatment for ASD.

Understanding Stem Cells

  • Stem cells are the foundational cells that can differentiate into specialized cells with distinct functions.
  • Two main categories: pluripotent stem cells (can differentiate into various adult cells) and adult stem cells (tissue/organ-specific).
  • Pluripotent stem cells are found in embryos; reprogramming of adult cells leads to induced pluripotent stem cells.

Stem Cells in Medicine

  • Stem cells’ regenerative properties make them valuable in regenerative medicine.
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation treats conditions like leukaemia.
  • Challenges: Limited adult stem cells post-removal, focus on making them pluripotent.

What is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?

  • ASD is a neurological and developmental disorder affecting communication, behaviour, and interactions.
  • Conventional therapies focus on symptom management, social skills training, behaviour analysis, and speech and occupational therapy.

Potential of Stem Cell Therapy for ASD

  • Some experts suggest stem cells could enhance immune system regulation and neural connectivity in the brain.
  • Current clinical trials show mixed results; treatment is experimental, lacks sufficient data.
  • EMRB recommendations against stem cell therapy due to limited evidence, risks, side effects, and absence of established protocol.

EMRB’s Concerns

  • EMRB’s recommendation stemmed from “predatory marketing” of stem cell therapy, giving false hope to parents about “curing” ASD.
  • The Delhi HC ruling doesn’t assess the general validity of stem cell therapy but permits ongoing treatment for specific cases.


  • The court’s verdict allows continued stem cell therapy for ASD, acknowledging the ongoing uncertainty and potential of the treatment.
  • The decision underlines the need for further research and data to establish stem cell therapy’s efficacy and safety for treating autism.

Unveiling the Sun’s Secrets: ISRO’s Aditya-L1 Mission


Central Idea

  • India’s maiden solar observatory mission, Aditya-L1, was successfully launched by ISRO on September 2.
  • Carried by the PSLV in its 59th flight, the spacecraft’s mission aims to study the sun’s behaviour and phenomena.
  • Aditya-L1 will spend 16 days orbiting Earth, undergoing five manoeuvres for required velocity.
  • Subsequent Trans-Lagrangian insertion will begin a 110-day journey towards L1 Lagrange point.
  • Aditya-L1 will orbit around L1, a balanced position between Earth and the sun, 1.5 million km away from Earth.

Aditya-L1 Mission

  • ISRO introduces the Aditya-L1 mission, a novel space-based observatory designated for studying the Sun.
  • The spacecraft will be positioned in a halo orbit around the Lagrange point 1 (L1) in the Sun-Earth system, approximately 1.5 million km from Earth.
  • The L1 point’s strategic location enables continuous solar observation devoid of eclipses, furnishing invaluable insights into solar activities and their real-time effects on space weather.
  • Once Aditya exits Earth’s sphere of influence, it will head towards the Lagrange point L1, a distance of 1.5 million km.

Significance of Lagrange Point 1

  • Lagrange points are equilibrium positions where gravitational forces counteract centripetal forces, offering a stable environment for satellites.
  • The spacecraft will be positioned around L1, affording an unobstructed view of the Sun for unhindered observation.
  • Different Lagrange points offer unique advantages, such as L1’s consistent view of the Sun, as demonstrated by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Satellite (SOHO).

Aditya-L1’s Scientific Endeavors

  • Aditya-L1 carries seven payloads to investigate the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona using a range of detectors.
  • The payloads encompass instruments like Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC), Solar Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SUIT), Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS), and more.
  • Payloads examining solar dynamics in the interplanetary medium contribute to a better understanding of phenomena like coronal heating, mass ejections, and space weather.

Significance of Solar Study

  • Solar Influence on the System: The Sun significantly shapes planetary evolution and weather, extending its impact to satellites, electronics, power systems, and even Earth’s climate.
  • Predicting Solar Storms: Continuous solar observations are essential for tracking Earth-bound solar storms and predicting their potential impacts.
  • Gateway through L1: All solar storms heading towards Earth pass through L1, making it a crucial point for monitoring.

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