02 November 2021 Daily Current Affairs

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Prelims Specific Question

1) Which statements are  correct regarding COP-26

  • 1) India has promised to be carbon neutral by 2075.
  • 2) By 2030 , 50% of energy will be sourced from Renewable sources.
  • 3) India promised that it would generate 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030.

Select the correct statement/s

  • A) 1, 2 only
  • B) 2 and 3 only
  • C) 2 only
  • D) None of the above

2) Which body releases the composite water management index?

  • A) Central Water Commission
  • B) Ministry of Jal Shakti
  • C) NITI Aayog
  • D) None of the above

3) which statements are correct regarding Bitcoins

  • 1. Bitcoins are legal in India
  • 2. RBI is the governing body for Bitcoins.

Which are correct statement/s:-

  • A) 1 only
  • B) 2 only
  • C) Both
  • D) None

Bodies /  Report / Exercises


  • The BASIC group was formed as the result of an agreement signed by the four countries on November 28, 2009.
  • They are a bloc of four large newly industrialized countries – Brazil, South Africa, India and China.

Significance of the grouping:

  • The signatory nations have a broadly common position on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and raising the massive funds that are needed to fight climate change.
  • The BASIC countries constituted one of the parties in the Copenhagen Accord reached with the US-led grouping; the Accord, was, however, not legally binding.
  • The BASIC group wields considerable heft purely because of the size of the economies and populations of the member countries.
  • Brazil, South Africa, India and China put together has one-third of the world’s geographical area and nearly 40% of the world’s population, and when they unitedly speak in one voice this shows their determination.
  • BASIC is one of several groups of nations working together to fight climate change and carry out negotiations within the UNFCCC.

 Need for this grouping:

In light of the IPCC Special Report on 1.5°C released in October last year, the group took note of its findings that highlight the “high vulnerability of developing countries to climate change effects and high resultant costs of adaptation”.

The findings of the IPCC Special Report on Global Warming make it incredibly clear that the impacts of an already warming world are significant, and that impacts at 2°C are catastrophic compared to those of 1.5°C. Yet, the BASIC ministers recalled the Paris goal of limiting the temperature rise to well under 2°C, and aspiring to limit it to 1.5°C, suggesting their continued pursuit of 2°C as the target temperature limit.

The BASIC countries also contend that their nationally determined contributions (NDCs)— voluntary pledges of national efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions—have demonstrated “a high level of ambition in the context of poverty and sustainable development”.

2) Sign off on Paris Rulebook, says BASIC

On the opening day of the 26th United Nations Conference of Parties (COP), Environment Minister Bhupender Yadav delivered a statement on behalf of the BASIC group of countries — Brazil, South Africa, India and China — at the U.N. Climate Change Conference under way in Glasgow.

The Paris Agreement laid out the framework for international action, the Rulebook will set this Agreement in motion by laying out the tools and processes to enable it is implemented fairly and properly.

Countries had agreed to develop and finalise the Paris Rulebook at COP24 in Poland in 2018.

“In doing so, full effect must be given to implementation of the principles of Equity and Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDRRC) and, recognition of the very different national circumstances of Parties,”

3) Rescue guide launched for Ganges river dolphin

  • The Jal Shakti Ministry released a guide for the safe rescue and release of stranded Ganges river dolphins.
  • The document has been prepared by the Turtle Survival Alliance and the Environment, Forest and Climate Change Department (EFCCD) of the Uttar Pradesh Government.
  • The Ganges river dolphin is the national aquatic animal of India and is listed as ‘endangered’ under the IUCN Red List Assessments, Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act (1972), Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

The species, whose global population is estimated at 4,000, is mostly found in the Indian subcontinent. The dolphins often accidentally enter canals in northern India and are unable to swim up against the gradient. They are also vulnerable to harm by people.

Best practices on crowd control, dolphin capture from canals and handling, transfer, transport and release are part of the guide.

“Found throughout the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India and Bangladesh, the Ganges river dolphin [Platanista gangetica gangetica] is a global priority and is also an indicator of healthy aquatic systems.


India will achieve net zero emissions by 2070, says PM

India will achieve net zero emissions latest by 2070, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said at the COP26 summit in Glasgow.

Until Monday, India was the only major emitter that had not committed to a timeline to achieve net zero, or a year by which it would ensure its net carbon dioxide emissions would be zero.

  • By 2030, India will ensure 50% of its energy will be sourced from renewable sources.
  • India also committed to reduce its carbon emissions until 2030 by a billion tonnes.
  • India will also reduce its emissions intensity per unit of GDP by less than 45%.
  • India would also install systems to generate 500 giga-watt of renewable energy by 2030, a 50 GW increase from its existing target, the Prime Minister said.

Responsibilities of Developed countries towards developing countries –

  1. Technology transfer
  2. Climate finance (Providing funds i.e. $1 Trillion )

2) Cannot impose blanket ban on all firecrackers, says SC

The Supreme Court said a blanket ban on firecrackers may not be possible, but measures ought to be in place to prevent the use of toxic chemicals in firecrackers.

“Only those firecrackers are banned which are found to be injurious to health and affecting the health of citizens,” the court had noted in an order.


NCSC to probe Wankhede’s complaint

About NCSC (National Commission for Scheduled Castes)

  • NCSC is a constitutional body that works to safeguard the interests of the scheduled castes (SC) in India.
  • Article 338 of the constitution of India deals with this commission: It provides for a National Commission for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes with duties to investigate and monitor all matters relating to safeguards provided for them, to inquire into specific complaints and to participate and advise on the planning process of their socio-economic development etc.

History and Origin:

  • Special Officer: Initially, the constitution provided for the appointment of a Special Officer under Article 338.
  • The special officer was designated as the Commissioner for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
  • 65th Amendment, 1990: It replaced the one-member system with a multi-member National Commission for Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). The Constitution (65th Amendment) Act 1990, amended Article 338 of the Constitution.
  • 89th Amendment, 2003: By this amendment, the erstwhile National Commission for SC and ST was replaced by two separate Commissions from the year 2004 which were: National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) and National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST)- under Article 338-A.

StructureIt consists of:

  • Chairperson.
  • Vice-chairperson.
  • Three other members.

They are appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.


  • Monitoring and investigating all issues concerning the safeguards provided for the SCs under the constitution.
  • Enquiring into complaints relating to the deprivation of the rights and safeguards of the SCs.
  • Taking part in and advising the central or state governments with respect to the planning of socio-economic development of the SCs.
  • Regular reporting to the President of the country on the implementation of these safeguards.
  • Recommending steps to be taken to further the socio-economic development and other welfare activities of the SCs.
  • Any other function with respect to the welfare, protection, development and advancement of the SC community.

The Commission is also required to discharge similar functions with regard to the Anglo-Indian Community as it does with respect to the SCs.

Till 2018, the commission was also required to discharge similar functions with regard to the other backward classes (OBCs). It was relieved from this responsibility by the 102nd Amendment Act of 2018.


October manufacturing activity quickens, job losses persist: PMI

All about Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI)

Definition: PMI is an indicator of business activity- in the manufacturing and services sectors.

Calculation of PMI

  • It is a survey-based measure that asks the respondents about changes in their perception about key business variables as compared with the previous month.
  • It is calculated separately for the manufacturing and services sectors and then a composite index is constructed.

About PMI Scale

  • The latest composite PMI decreased to 49.8 in September 2019 from 52.6 in August 2019.
  • The PMI is a number from 0 to 100.
  • PMI above 50 represents an expansion when compared to the previous month;
  • PMI under 50 represents a contraction, and
  • A reading at 50 indicates no change.
  • If PMI of the previous month is higher than the PMI of the current month (as is the case mentioned above), it represents that the economy is contracting.
  • The PMI is usually released at the start of every month. It is, therefore, considered a good leading indicator of economic activity.

Editorials of the Day

Editorial 1 – Kashmir’s fragility has more complex reasons

Kashmir’s fragility reasons –

  1. Pakistan angle – Pakistan always tries to exploit Kashmir and it had unauthorized capture of Gilgit – Baltistan.
  2. Chinese angle – Cheque book diplomacy –  Of particular consequence in this context is China’s continuing cooperation with Pakistan in many matters, its growing assertiveness in regard to its territorial claims, vis-à-vis India, its opposition to the prominence given to India by the West in both Asian and global forums, etc. All these have further helped cement the nexus between China and Pakistan.

The latter is intent on establishing an Asian system in which China sits at the summit of a hierarchical regional order.

Solutions suggested by author –

Need for hard and better intelligence. Hard intelligence is critical to avoid misperceptions and miscalculations.

The (recent) history of the world is replete with stories of intelligence failures, misperceptions and miscalculations, which had led to grave situations, and which might well have been avoided had there been better intelligence.

The serious miscalculation about Iraqi President Saddam Hussein possessing nuclear weapons based on wrong intelligence led to unnecessary involvement by the United States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in Iraq, followed by an unfortunate train of events that continues to haunt the world to this day.

Intelligence adjustment – Linked to this is also the danger of ‘intelligence adjustment’, viz., avoiding challenging conventional assumptions, which could undermine their ability to provide a more accurate picture of the larger threat.

2) Water Crisis in India

  1. Chennai Case Study A significant, and by no means less worrying, example of the water crisis that unfolded before our eyes was in Chennai in 2019, where life came to a standstill and parts of the city went without piped water for months. Though this may well have been forgotten, Chennai remains a spectacle of the impending tragedies brought about by the city’s inability to meet the basic needs of citizens, vis-à-vis drinking water, cooking and sanitation.
  2. Punjab Case StudyThe draft report of the Central Ground Water Board concluded that Punjab would be reduced to a desert in 25 years if the extraction of its groundwater resources continues unabated; 82% of Punjab’s land area has seen a huge decline in groundwater levels, wherein 109 out of 138 administrative blocks have been placed in the ‘over exploited’ category. Groundwater extraction which was at 35% in the 1960s and 1970s, rose to 70% post the Green Revolution — a period which saw governments subsidizing power for irrigation that left tube-wells running for hours.

What can be the possible solutions –

  • Proper planning while cities planning.
  • Maintain ground water recharge.
  • Using rainwater harvesting
  • Not to encroach wetland areas
  • Protecting resources – The Ministry of Jal Shakti, last year, had announced an ambitious plan to provide water connections to every household in India by 2024. In view of the ongoing erosion of water resources and an ever-increasing demand for water, the thrust should not be on promising water supply. Instead the aim should be towards protecting and conserving water resources on the one hand and minimizing and enhancing efficiency of water usage on the other.

Editorial 3 – The crypto conundrum

This article is regarding Crypto currencies and their legality in India. Example of crypto currencies are –

  • Bitcoin –  Operating on blockchain technology, Bitcoin is set to disrupt the currency market. Invented in 2008.
  • Ethereum-
  • Ripple.
  • Dash.
  • Litecoin.
  • Dogecoin.
  • zCash.

Why there is always a question-mark for legality of crypto currencies ?

  • No government security or backing for lost crypto currencies
  • RBI is not responsible for regulatory of crypto currencies
  • Very few people are using crypto currencies
  • Crypto currencies control is very complex because of block chain technology
  • Value of crypto currencies is very volatile because it suddenly changes on single adverse news on global market.

Environmental impact – It’s no secret that crypto currency mining requires massive amounts of energy. These astronomical energy costs are due to the competitive nature of proof-of-work block chains. Instead of storing account balances in a central database, crypto currency transactions are recorded by a distributed network of miners, incentivized by block rewards. These specialized computers are engaged in a computational race to record new blocks, which can only be created by solving cryptographic puzzles.

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