05 July, 2022 Daily Current Affairs – THE EXAMS MADE SIMPLE

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Prelims Objective Practices Questions

(I.) What does “Sandhara” type of temple in Ancient India mean?
A.) One without pradikshinapatha
B.) One with pradikshinapatha
C.) One which can be accessed from all sides
D.) None of the above


  • Sandhara:- These types of the temples have a square sanctum enclosed by a gallery of pillars meant for Pradakshina. Thus, the Sandhara temples have a Pradakshinapatha.
  • Nirandhara:- This type of temples do NOT have Pradakshinapathas.
  • Sarvatobhadra: These types of the temples have four functional doors on cardinal direction and also a Pradakshinapatha with a row of 12 pillars around the santum sanctorum. These types of temples could be accessed from all sides.

(II.) Which of the following are the Intangible cultural heritage (ICH) elements from India that have been inscribed on the UNESCO’s Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
1.) Kutiyattam
2.) Ramlila
3.) Kalbelia folk dance
4.) Mudiyettu
Select the correct code:
A.) 1, 2
B.) 1, 2, 3
C.) 2, 3, 4
D.) 1, 2, 3, 4
From India the Intangible Cultural Heritages added into this list include:-

  • Tradition of Vedic chanting
  • Ramlila, the traditional performance of the Ramayana
  • Kutiyattam, Sanskrit theatre
  • Ramman, religious festival and ritual theatre of the Garhwal Himalayas.
  • Mudiyettu, ritual theatre and dance drama of Kerala
  • Kalbelia folk songs and dances of Rajasthan
  • Chhau dance
  • Buddhist chanting of Ladakh:- recitation of sacred Buddhist texts in the trans-Himalayan Ladakh region, Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Sankirtana, ritual singing, drumming and dancing of Manipur
  • Traditional brass and copper craft of utensil making among the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru, Punjab
  • Yoga,
  • Nawrouz,
  • Kumbh Mela,
  • Durga puja (2021)

(III.) With reference to Vachana sahitya, consider the following statements.
1. It is as old as Sangam literature of Tamil.
2. This form of literature consisted mainly of stories of kings in the form of pure prose
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
A.) 1 only
B.) 2 only
C.) Both
D.) None

  • Note:-
    Vachana Sahitya
    is a form of rhythmic writing in Kannada that evolved in the 11th Century C.E. and flourished in the 12th century, as a part of the Lingayatha ‘movement’.
  • Vachanas literally means “(that which is) said”. These are readily intelligible prose texts.

Prelims Specific Facts

1.) Hotels can’t force customer to pay service charge: Centre

  • The Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) issued guidelines here on Monday asking hotels and restaurants not to collect service charge from customers. These establishments should not add service charge automatically or by default to the food bill, the guidelines say.
  • CCPA, adds that if any consumer finds that a hotel or restaurant is violating the guidelines, he or she may make a request to re move the service charge from the bill amount or lodge a complaint with the National Consumer Helpline. Complaints can be filed with the Consumer Commission too or with the District Collector.
  • “No hotel or restaurant shall force a consumer to pay service charge and shall clearly inform the consumer that service charge is voluntary, optional and at consumer’s discretion,”.
  • The guidelines added that component of service is inherent in the price of food and beverages offered by the restaurant or hotel.

2.)Centre stops work on Rajasthan canal project

Background of ERCP:-

  • The surface water of Rajasthan has been divided into 15 River basins and one outside basin area.
  • It is estimated that out of fifteen river basins surplus water is available only in Chambal and Mahi basin. Within Chambal basin, during rainy season Kunnu, Kul, Parbati, Kalisindh, Mez, and Chakan sub-basins are also having surplus yield, while Banas, Banganga, Ghambhiri and Parbati sub-basins are deficit in yield.
  • Hence, Eastern Rajasthan Canal Projects (ERCP) is planned to harvest surplus yield available in the Southern Rajasthan rivers and transfer to deficit basins in South-Eastern Rajasthan.

Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project: ERCP

  • Under the project the surplus water in the sub basins of Kunnu, Kul, Parvati, Kalisindh and Mej rivers received during monsoon has to be carried to the sub basin of Banas, Morel, Banganga, Gambhir and Parbati rivers.
  • ERCP is planned to meet the Drinking water needs of the 13 districts of Southern & South Eastern Rajasthan viz. Jhalawar, Bara, Kota, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, Ajmer, Tonk, Jaipur, Dausa, Karauli, Alwar, Bharatpur and Dholpur of Rajasthan for Humans and Live stock till year 2051.

3.) Dhyana Mandir to be built at Alluri bithplace

  • PM attends his 125th birth anniversary fete.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday said an Alluri Dhyana Mandir would be constructed at Mogallu, the birthplace of freedom fighter Alluri Sitarama Raju, in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh.
  • The he year-long 125th birth anniversary celebrations of Manyam Veerudu Alluri Sitarama Raju had kick started.
  • Alluri Sitaram Raju led the famous Rampa rebellion against the britishers in support of local tribals.
  • The Prime Minister virtually unveiled the 30foot bronze statue of Alluri Sita rama Raju at ASR Nagar.
  • The Prime Minister virtually unveiled the 30-foot bronze statue of Alluri Sitarama Raju at ASR Nagar.

Major Freedom Fighters from Andhra Pradesh :-

  • Alluri Seetarama Raju:-
    • Born in Kshatriya family in West Godavari district he left all his wealth to fight against the British rule. He led armed rebellion in the agency where British officials harassed people under the Forest act. He united people of various tribes and sent shivers among Britishers by attacking police stations, capturing weapons with guerilla attacks. His attacks are referred to as Rampa rebellion.
  • Pingali Venkaiah:-
    • Pingali Venkaiah a staunch worshipper of Mahatma Gandhi was known as Diamond Venkaiah for his knowlege on diamond mines. He did research on cotton farming and he designed Indian National Flag. He was a great freedom fighter who fought many battles against the British.
  • Kanneganti Hanumanthu:-
    • Kaneganti Hanumanthu was a freedom fighter who rebelled against British Rule and spearheaded the Palnadu Rebellion against tax. He was executed by the British General Rutherford.
    • He was born in Minchalapadu in the Durgi mandal which is in Palnadu in Guntur district.
    • A local peasant leader, he refused to pay British taxes and participated in a revolt over the issue. He was killed while resisting British police forces at the age of 30.
  • Sriramulu :-
    • Potti Sreeramulu was one of the most prominent freedom fighters from Andhra, he carried the message of Mahatma Gandhi across the state of Andhra under the Madras Presidency. A selfless individual, he served the Dalit community with great dedication.
    • Potti Sreeramulu attained martyrdom after a prolonged fast demanding a separate linguistic state for the Telugu speaking people.
  • Kandukuri Veeresalingam Pantulu(1848-1919) :-
    • He was called Father of renaissance movement in Telugu. Inspired from ideology of brahmo samaj of Raja rammohan Roy. He was an active social reformer fought against ill practices in Andhra. He published Viveka vardini and Satihita bodhini, Magazine.

4.) Soil sample from T.N. sent for project at new Parliament site

  1. The rich cultural history of the Tamils will be featured in a project relating to the new Parliament being constructed by the Union government in New Delhi.
    Soil sample form five ecological regions mentioned in ancient Tamil Sangam literature – Kurinji, Mullai, Marutham, Neithal and Paalaihave been collected and sent to the capital recently.
  2. Agriculture museum-
    • It may be recalled that Tamil Nadu’s first Agriculture Budget presented for 2021-22 also announced that a museum for agriculture would be established in Chennai, which would also depict the traditional land classification modes.

5 types of Land uses in Sangam Period :-

  • Kurinji Tinai (mountains and slope),
  • Mullai Tinai (forests and grassland),
  • Marudham Tinai (plains, valleys and agricultural lands),
  • Neithal Tinai ( coastal or seashore) and
  • Paalai Tinai ( parched wasteland or desert).

5.)Australia to give minerals to Indian EV makers

  • Australia is all set to supply critical minerals required for India’s electric vehicles, solar power projects and other strategic areas.
  • Australia hosts vast reserves of critical minerals, such as lithium and cobalt, which are crucial for clean energy technologies such as batteries and electric vehicles, as well as mobile phones and computers.

Editorial of the Day

1.) A chaotic world, the perils of multilateralism

  • The 14th virtual BRICS summit hosted by China (June 23-24) was a clear attempt by China to hijack the grouping, going by a blueprint it has prepared for the new world order. Curiously, BRICS was not meant to be a political grouping when the acronym, BRIC, was coined by Goldman Sachs economist Jim O’Neill in 2001 to categorise Brazil, Russia, India and China, which were expected to collectively dominate global growth by 2050.
  • February 2022, Russia is legally obliged to take the Chinese side in any future showdown between India and China.
  • China pushed for expansion at the summit itself even at a time when BRICS had no credible global agenda. China showed no enthusiasm to bring India into the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) even after India met the criteria of a liberalised economy.
  • China seems to think that BRICS would be an extension of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).
  • The SriLankan experience has exposed the Chinese strategy; it has been India, not China, which has come to the rescue of Sri Lanka.
  • Mr. Modi’s presence at the G7 summit enabled him to pursue several vital projects with G7 countries, but they will have to be pursued away from the theatre of war – an issue that has fully occupied the G7 countries.
  • At The UAE :-
    The limited gains of India at the BRICS and G7 summits have been in contrast with the enthusiastic welcome Mr. Modi received in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which the Prime Minister visited for a few hours.
                 The few hours of bilateral meetings in the UAE were more productive for Mr. Modi than the days he spent at the two summits.
                  Multilateral negotiations will be increasingly difficult in the present chaotic global situation. It is only by working bilaterally with potential allies that India can attain the status of a pole in the new world with steadfast friends and followers.

2.) India needs to scale up direct nutrition interventions

  • India launches the celebrations of its 75th anniversary of Independence, there is much to be proud about.
  • It is disconcerting that even after seven decades of Independence, India is afflicted by public health issues such as child malnutrition (35.5% stunted, 67.1% anaemic) attributing to 68.2% of under-five child mortality. Poor nutrition not only adversely impacts health and survival but also leads to diminished learning capacity, and poor school performance. And in adulthood, it means reduced earnings and in creased risks of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.
    The good news is that the Government appears determined to set it right with an aggressive push to the National Nutrition Mission (NNM), rebranding it the Prime Minister’s Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nutrition, or POSHAN Abhiyaan. It has the objective of reducing malnutrition in and adolescent girls.
  • NHFS data is a pointer Data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-5, 2019-21, as compared to NFHS-4, 2015-16, reveals a substantial improvement in a period of four to five years in several proxy indicators of women’s empowerment, for which the Government deserves credit. There is a substantial increase in antenatal service attendance (58.6 to 70.0%); women having their own saving bank accounts (63.0 to78.6%); women owning mobile phones that they themselves use (45.9% to 54.0%); women married before 18 years of age (26.8 % to 23.3 %); women with 10 or more years of schooling (35.7% to 41.0%), and access to clean fuel for cooking (43.8% to 68.6%).
    But, alarmingly, during this period, the country has not progressed well in terms of direct nutrition interventions. Preconception nutrition, maternal nutrition, and appropriate infant and child feeding remain to be effectively addressed. India has 20% to 30% under nutrition even in the first six months of life when exclusive breastfeeding is the only nourishment required.
  • Despite a policy on infant and young child feeding, and a ban on sale of commercial milk for infant feeding, there has only been a marginal improvement in the practice of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Child undernutrition in the first three months remains high. Creating awareness on EBF, promoting the technique of appropriate holding, latching and manually emptying the breast are crucial for the optimal transfer of breast milk to a baby. Recent evidence from the Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas (CTARA), IIT Mumbai team indicates that well-planned breast feeding counselling given to pregnant women during antenatal checkup prior to delivery and in up frequent home visits makes a significant difference.
  • NFHS-5 also confirms a gap in another nutrition intervention complementary feeding practices, i.e., complementing semi-solid feeding with continuation of breast milk from six months on wards. Poor complementary feeding is often due to a lack of aware ness to start feeding at six to eight months, what and how to feed appropriately family food items, how frequently, and in what quantity.
  • Creating awareness at the right time with the right tools and techniques regarding special care in the first 1,000 days deserves very high priority. We must act now, and invest finances and energy in a mission mode. The Prime Minister can give a major boost to POSHAN 2.0, like he did to Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan, using his ‘Mann Ki Baat’ programme.
  • There is a need to revisit the nodal sys tem for nutrition programme existing since 1975, the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) under the Ministry of Women and Child and examine whether it is the right system for reaching mother-child in the first 1000 days of life.

Explainer of the Day

1.) The problem with our university vision

  • Step-motherly treatment
    • Among the other HEIS too, there is great inequality. As per the All-India Survey on Higher Education (2019-20), 184 of the 1,043 HEIS in the country are centrally funded institutions. The Indian government generously allocates financial resources to these institutions. However, the financial support provided by State governments to State HEIS is far from adequate even though the number of under-graduate students is largest in State public universities (13,97,527) followed by State open universities (9,22,944) of the total students’ enrollment. State-sponsored HEIs barely manage to pay salaries and pensions.
    • On the other hand, the institutions that are generously funded by the Centre perform better than their State-sponsored counterparts on all academic performance indicators – faculty strength, modernised laboratories, building infrastructure, digitised libraries, sponsored research project grants, computing facilities, etc. Therefore, that the State-funded HEIS would not perform well in these rankings was a forgone conclusion. It is a consequence of the unequal and unfair system in the Indian higher education system, where State-sponsored HEIS are provided step-motherly treatment and positioned poorly vis-à-vis centrally funded institutions.
    • For India to perform better on these rankings, we need to pay more attention to the State HEIS.
  • The NEP vision
    • The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 has envisaged all HEIs to become multidisciplinary institutions by 2040. The aim is to increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education, including vocational education, from 26.3% in 2018 to 50% by The NEP also aims to ensure
      that by 2030, there is at least one large multidisciplinary HEI in or near every district. This means that single-stream specialised institutions will eventually be phased out.
    • However, the fact that prominent multidisciplinary universities such as Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi University, the University of Hyderabad, and Jamia Millia Islamia have slipped in the QS World University Rankings should compel national think tanks to revisit the NEP’s proposal in this regard. A close study of the QS World University Rankings reveals that single-stream specialised HEIS such as the Indian Institutes of Technology and IISc have performed better than their multidisciplinary counterparts.
    • It is crucial to emphasise here that nobody is averse to the idea of multi disciplinary/multi-faculty education if there is a 15% to 20% flexibility in the total academic strength. But converting all HEIs into multidisciplinary institutions is not an idea that holds water given the unique conditions and demands in India.

2.) Right intent, confusing content

  • The proposed market for e-wasterecy cling appears unrealistic.
    • First, large-scale recycling of e-waste is still in its infancy in In dia. Most of the recycling of valuable material is carried out within the informal sector using inefficient and unsafe technologies. At a time when the technical feasibility and commercial viability of different recycling technologies and approaches for e-waste components is being worked upon in India, a target to recycle 60% of the e-waste generated in 2022-23 appears too optimistic.
    • Second, if the regulatory targets were to create a vibrant market for recycling, the existing formal and informal players would have to play a crucial role. In light of this, the complete silence on regulating registered collectors, dismantlers, and producer responsibility organisations is puzzling. Who will ensure that these entities are carrying out their responsibilities in an environmentally safe manner? Or are these entities no longer covered under the EPR framework?.
  • In addition, the informal sector accounts for a vast majority of e-waste processed in India. Most e-waste policy debates have centred around the integration of the informal sector into the formal systems. The pro posed regulations, however, place the responsibility of such integration on the State governments without specifying what the incentives are for them to do this.
    Experience from European countries suggests that recycling targets would likely be much more difficult for the regulators to monitor and enforce compared to collection targets. Does the recycling target apply to every component of an e-product or does it apply to its aggregate weight?
  • The other major change is the introduction of a Steering Committee to oversee the “overall implementation, monitoring, and supervision” of the regulations. This Committee, for example, has the power to decide on the product-wise “conversion factor” that determines the value of the recycling certificate, specify how the environmental compensation fund could be utilised, resolve disputes, and “remove any difficulty in smooth implementation of these regulations.” While such an institutional mechanism could provide more certainty in implementation, there is lack of representation in the Committee. The Rules propose the Chairman of the CPCB as the Chairperson of the Committee, which would include representatives of the Environment Ministry, the Electronics and IT Ministry, and the associations of producers and recyclers. But it is surprising that representation from science/academia and civil society organisations is not deemed appropriate.

3.) Enforcing the single-use plastic ban

  • Mineral water bottles or plastic bottles of aerated drinks are unaffected by the ban, though in popular imagination, they are representative of ‘plastic pollution’.
  • The All India Plastic Manufacturers Association has said that the ban would shutter 88,000 units in the plastic manufacturing business. These employ close to a million people and contribute to exports worth Rs. 25,000 crore. Fast Moving Consumer Goods companies (FMCG) would be severely affected by the ban due to their dependence on plastic straws, plates. Their replacements, industry representatives say, are available but cost much more than their plastic alternatives.

4.) The need for space sustainability

  • On June 23, the U.K. hosted the fourth summit for Space Sustainability in London in collaboration with the Secure World Foundation. In line with the ambitious U.K. National Space Strategy, George Freeman, the Minister of Science, announced a new ‘Plan for Space Sustainability. According to him, this plan aims to “set a global commercial framework for the insurability, the licensing and the regulation of commercial satellites.” It also aims to reduce the cost for those who comply with the best sustainability standards and thus encourages a thriving ecosystem for the industry.
  • What does sustainability in outer space mean?
    • The earth’s orbital environment has more than tripled in the past decade. As the cost of missions reduce and the number of players increase, the complexity of missions and slot allotment issues also increase. With the emergence of large constellations and complex satellites, there is a risk of collisions and interference with radio frequencies. As the outer space is considered a shared natural resource, the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) in 2019 adopted a set of 21 voluntary, non-binding guidelines to ensure the long-term sustainability of outer space activities.
    • One of the hot issues when it comes to space sustainability is orbital crowding. It poses a direct threat to the operations and safety of a mission and is likely to cause legal and insurance-related conflicts. Space debris is another prominent issue. After the completion of a mission, an ‘end-of-life protocol’ requires space objects to be moved to the graveyard orbit or to a low altitude. Neither of the options are sustainable in the long run. Other causes of concern are solar and magnetic storms which potentially damage communication systems.
    • Long-term sustainability looks toward space research and development of technology to ensure the reuse and recycling of satellites at every stage. The U.K. plan proposes active debris removal and in-orbit servicing.
  • What does the U.K. plan for space sustainability entail?
    • The U.K. calls for an “Astro Carta” for space sustainability, based on the Artemis Accords model for sustainable space exploration. The U.K. Space Sustainability plan mentions four primary elements: to review the regulatory framework of the U.K.’s orbital activity; to work with organisations such as the G-7 and the UN to emphasise international engagement on space sustainability; to try and develop safety and quality-related metrics that quantify the sustainability of activities; and, to induce additional funding of $6.1 million on active debris removal. The U.K. also confirmed investments in its National Space Surveillance and Tracking Programme, which works on collision assessment services for U.K. licenced satellite operators.
  • Where does India stand on space sustainability?
    • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has initiated ‘Project NETRA’ to monitor space debris. The domestic surveillance system would provide first-hand information on the status of debris, which would aid further planning on protecting space assets. In April 2022, India and the U.S. signed a new pact for monitoring space objects at the 2+2 dialogue. The controlled anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) tests and the risk of collisions must be collectively addressed.
    • To provide in-orbit servicing, ISRO is developing a docking experiment called ‘SPADEX’. It looks at docking a satellite on an existing satellite, offering support in re-fuelling and other in-orbit services while enhancing the capability of a satellite.
  • Today, any entity (government or private) with the necessary access to resources and technology can invest in outer space. Sustainable practices in outer space would directly help reduce orbital crowding and collision risk while nurturing future technologies. As the natural course of evolution, the Plan for Space Sustainability, which includes private industries, is a timely move.


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