09 August 2023 Daily Current Affairs

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Daily Practice Question

Consider the following statements regarding the recently released Global Economic Prospects report:

  1. It is released by International Monetary
  2. It is released once a year.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer :- D

Global Economic Prospects, a flagship report (issued twice a year) was recently released by World
. Hence statements 1 and 2 are not correct.

  • It examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on emerging markets
    and developing economies (EMDEs).

2) Which of the following are the features of fundamental rights?

  1. They strike a balance between individual liberty and social control.
  2. There are some fundamental rights that are available against the arbitrary action of private individuals.
  3. There are some fundamental rights that are available only to the citizens.
  4. All the fundamental rights are self- executory.
    Select the correct answer using the code given below.

a)1, 2 and 3 only
b)2 and 4 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer :- a

3) How many of the following is/are Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)?

  1. Methyl Bromide
  2. Hydrobromoflurocarbons (HBFCs)
  3. Carbon tetrachloride
  4. Methyl chloroform

a) 1 only
b) 2 Only
C) 3 only
d) All four

Answer :- All 4

o chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
o hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)
o hydrobromoflurocarbons (HBFCs).
o halons
o methyl bromide.
o carbon tetrachloride.
o methyl chloroform.

Prelims Specific News Items

1. All about Vaquita Propoise

The Vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus), according to the United States Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), is in danger of going extinct and has to be saved right away.

IUCN Status: Critically Endangered.

  • Porpoises are among the smallest members of the cetacean family (whales, porpoises and dolphins).
  • They are only distant relatives of dolphins.

The vaquita (Phocoena sinus) is the world’s smallest cetacean. Its name means “little cow” in Spanish.

Affectionately dubbed the “panda of the sea” for its distinctive eye markings, the vaquita is the world’s most critically endangered marine mammal.

Habitat: Vaquitas are found exclusively in the northern Gulf of California, also known as the Sea of Cortez, Mexico. They prefer shallow, murky waters and are often associated with the region’s abundant fish population.

2. Indian eagle-owl :-

Indian eagle owl

Earlier, this species was considered to be a part of the Eurasian Eagle owl. The Indian eagle-owl was classified as a species only in recent years, thus distinguishing it from the Eurasian eagle-owl.

Its nocturnal habits mean that very little is known about this bird. The widespread range — the entire Indian peninsula would seem to indicate that it is a stable population. 

Their total numbers have never been estimated. Many bird species face decline today as the total forested area in our country has suffered a decline. But the Indian eagle-owl does not have a dependency on forests.

3. All about Assam Rifles:-

  • The Assam Rifles, one of the central armed police forces, is the leading counter-insurgency force in the Northeast. 
  • Background:
    • It is the oldest paramilitary force in India.
    • The unit can trace its lineage back to a paramilitary police force that was formed under the British in 1835 called Cachar Levy.
    • Since then the Assam Rifles have undergone a number of name changes—the Assam Frontier Police (1883), the Assam Military Police (1891) and Eastern Bengal and Assam Military Police (1913), before finally becoming the Assam Rifles in 1917.
  • Role: It is tasked with the maintenance of law and order in the North East along with the Indian Army and also guards the Indo-Myanmar border in the region.
  • It is also known as ‘Sentinels of the Northeast’.
  • HQ: Shillong, Meghalaya.
  • Motto: Friends of the Hill People. 
  • Control:
    • It is the only paramilitary force with a dual control structure.
    • While the administrative control of the force is with the Ministry of Home Affairs, its operational control is with the Indian Army, which is under the Ministry of Defence.

4. Defence Ministry Launches its own Operating system and Security framework

Maya Operating system

In the face of increasing cyber and malware attacks on defence as well as critical infrastructure across the country, the Defence Ministry has decided to replace the Microsoft Operating System (OS) in all computers connected to the Internet with a new OS, Maya, based on open-source Ubuntu developed locally.

 In addition, an ‘end point detection and protection system’, Chakravyuh, is also being installed in these systems.

5. CHIPS Act of the U.S.

The Chips and Science Act (originally introduced in the House as the America COMPETES Act) is “a historic investment to surge production of American-made semiconductors, tackle supply chain vulnerabilities to make more goods in America, revitalize America’s scientific research and technological leadership, and strengthens America’s economic and national security at home and abroad” (US House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, & Technology).

India Semiconductor Mission (ISM) has been setup as an Independent Business Division within Digital India Corporation. ISM has all the administrative and financial powers and is tasked with the responsibility of catalysing the India Semiconductor ecosystem in manufacturing, packaging and design. ISM has an advisory board consisting of some of the leading global experts in the field of semiconductors. ISM is serving as the nodal agency for efficient, coherent and smooth implementation of the programme for development of semiconductor and manufacturing ecosystem in India.

Indian Semiconductor Mission

Objectives of ISM are as follows:

  1. Formulate a comprehensive long-term strategy for developing sustainable semiconductors and display manufacturing facilities and semiconductor design eco-system in the country in consultation with the Government ministries / departments / agencies, industry, and academia.
  2. Facilitate the adoption of secure microelectronics and developing trusted semiconductor supply chain, including raw materials, specialty chemicals, gases, and manufacturing equipment.
  3. Enable a multi-fold growth of Indian semiconductor design industry by providing requisite support in the form of Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools, foundry services and other suitable mechanisms for early-stage startups.
  4. Promote and facilitate indigenous Intellectual Property (IP) generation.
  5. Encourage, enable and incentivize Transfer of Technologies (ToT).
  6. Establish suitable mechanisms to harness economies of scale in Indian semiconductor and display industry.
  7. Enable cutting-edge research in semiconductors and display industry including evolutionary and revolutionary technologies through grants, global collaborations and other mechanisms in academia / research institutions, industry, and through establishing Centres of Excellence (CoEs).
  8. Enable collaborations and partnership programs with national and international agencies, industries and institutions for catalyzing collaborative research, commercialization and skill development.

ISM has been working as nodal agency for the Schemes approved under Semicon India Programme. The applications were received by ISM and are being appraised by ISM. ISM has also been engaging with various stakeholders of Semiconductors and Display ecosystem to attract the investments in India.

Fitch Downgraded USAs Ratings

Rating agency Fitch downgraded the United States of America’s (U.S.A.) rating to ‘AA+’ from ‘AAA’ — a rating that it had been holding at the agency since 1994.

Reasons For Downgrade– Fitch argued the downgrade cumulatively reflected the expected fiscal deterioration over the next three years, “high and growing” general government debt burden and the “erosion of governance” in comparison to similarly rated peers over the last two decades.

Jan Vishwas (amendment of Provisions) Bill 2023 Passed :-

Through The Jan Vishwas (Amendment of Provisions) Bill, 2023, a total of 183 provisions are being proposed to be decriminalized in 42 Central Acts administered by 19 Ministries/Departments. Decriminalization is proposed to be achieved in the following manner: –

(i) Both Imprisonment and/or Fine are proposed to be removed in some provisions.

(ii) Imprisonment is proposed to be removed and fine retained in few provisions.

(iii) Imprisonment is proposed to be removed and Fine enhanced in few provisions.

(iv) Imprisonment and Fine are proposed to be converted to Penalty in some provisions.

(v) Compounding of offences is proposed to be introduced in few provisions.

For effective implementation of the above, the bill proposes measures such as (a) pragmatic revision of fines and penalties commensurate to the offence committed; (b) establishment of Adjudicating Officers; (c) establishment of Appellate Authorities; and (d) Periodic increase in quantum of fine and penalties

It is also ensured that degree and nature of punishment is commensurate with the severity of the offence.

The benefits of the Amendment Bill are outlined as under:

1. The Amendment Bill will contribute to rationalizing criminal provisions and ensuring that citizens, businesses and the government departments operate without fear of imprisonment for minor, technical or procedural defaults.

2. The nature of penal consequence of an offence committed should be commensurate with the seriousness of the offence. This bill establishes a balance between the severity of the offence/violation committed and the gravity of the prescribed punishment. The proposed amendments ensure the adherence to law by businesses and citizens, without losing the rigor of the law.

3. The criminal consequences prescribed for technical/procedural lapses and minor defaults, clog the justice delivery system and puts adjudication of serious offences on the back burner. Some of the amendments proposed in the Bill are to introduce suitable administrative adjudication mechanisms, wherever applicable and feasible. This would go a long way in reducing undue pressure on the justice system, reduce the pendency of cases and help in a more efficient and effective justice dispensation.

4. Decriminalization of provisions which affect citizens and certain categories of government employees will help them live without the fear of imprisonment for minor violations.

5. The enactment of this legislation would be a landmark in the journey of rationalizing laws, eliminating barriers and bolstering growth of businesses. This legislation would serve as a guiding principle for future amendments in various laws. Consolidated amendments in various laws with a common objective will save time and cost for both Government and Businesses alike.

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