09 September 2021 – Daily Current Affairs

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Questions :-

Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, recently in news, is located in which of the

following state?

a) Tamil Nadu

b) Kerala

c) Andhra Pradesh

d) Karnataka 

2) E-100 pilot project sometimes seen in news is related to:

a) Promotion of Biofuels

b) Manufacturing of solar panels

c) Fabrication of Lithium-ion batteries

d) Distribution of e-rickshaws 

3) Consider the following statements regarding Gharial:

1. It is described as Critically Endangered in IUCN red list of threatened species.

2. Satkosia Gorge Sanctuary is populated with Gharials.

3. They are also known as Marsh Crocodiles.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3 

Prelims Specific Facts

1)Chandigarh now has its first pollen calendar, which can identify potential allergy triggers and provide a clear understanding for clinicians as well as allergy sufferers about their causes to help limit their exposure during high pollen loads.

What is a Pollen Calendar?

Pollen calendars represent the time dynamics of airborne pollen present in a particular geographical area.

They yield readily accessible visual details about various airborne pollen present throughout the year in a single picture.

By studying airborne pollen and its seasonal variations for about two years, researchers from the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) and Panjab University have created a pollen calendar for Chandigarh, arguably the first for any city in India.

2)What are the new initiatives in Education launched?

PM Modi has launched new initiatives under Azadi ka Amrit Mahaotsav.

Indian Sign Language dictionary: The dictionary is launched by the Indian Sign Language Research and Training centre of DPwD (Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities). It has 10,000 words in it. It was also accompanied by the launch of the Talking Books (audiobooks for the visually impaired).

School Quality Assessment and Accreditation Framework (SQAAF) of CBSE: SQAAF will help in bridging the inequality in education. It would also address the deficiency of the absence of a common scientific framework for various dimensions. These dimensions include curricula, pedagogy, assessment, inclusive practices and governance process.

NISTHA teachers’ training programme for NIPUN Bharat: It is aimed at training the teachers on new systems and techniques.

Vidyanjali Portal: This portal is used for facilitating education volunteers, donors and CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) contributors for school development. It is the platform for the country to achieve ‘Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas, Sabka Vishwas’ with ‘Sabka Prayas’.

3)What is Inspiration4, SpaceX’s first all-civilian space mission?

Source: This post is based on the article “What is Inspiration4, SpaceX’s first all-civilian space mission?” published in Indian Express on 7th September 2021.

What is the News?

SpaceX has announced that it is planning to launch the Inspiration4 mission by September 15.

About Inspiration4 mission:

Inspiration4 is a spaceflight planned for four people aboard the SpaceX Resilience capsule.

The three-day flight will be the first human spaceflight to orbit Earth with exclusively private citizens on board.

The flight will be privately operated by SpaceX using a previously-flown Crew Dragon capsule launched to low Earth orbit.  

The objective of the Inspiration4 mission

The mission involves circling the Earth for three days and then splashing down into the Atlantic Ocean.

It will orbit the Earth at 575 km, higher than the International Space Station (408 km) and the Hubble Space Telescope (547 km).This will be the farthest distance travelled by a crewed mission since 2009, when astronauts last went to repair the Hubble.

4) Centre hikes MSP for rabi crops :- The government on Wednesday increased the minimum support price (MSP) for wheat for the upcoming rabi season to ₹2,015 per quintal, a 2% hike from the ₹1,975 per quintal rate of last year.


Types of Cropping Seasons

5) Women can enter NDA, Centre informs SC :- The Union government on Wednesday gave the Supreme Court the “good news” that it had taken a decision to allow women entry into the National Defence Academy. If this decision comes through formally on paper, women can prepare for a career in the armed forces after Class XII.

Editorial of the Day:-

Editorial 01 :- Green hydrogen, a new ally for a zero carbon future :- 

Central theme :- Green Hydrogen holds promise as an alternative, truly clean fuel and in aiding the world’s decarbonisation goals.

The latest studies by a battery of scientists representing about 195 countries have signalled the crucial issue of climate vulnerability, especially for the Asian countries. The forthcoming 26th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow from November 1-12, 2021 is to re-examine the coordinated action plans to mitigate greenhouse gases and climate adaptation measures.

In order to achieve the goal of an alternative source of energy, governments are placing large bets in the hope of adopting a multi-faceted practical approach to utilise ‘Green hydrogen’ as a driving source to power our industries and light our homes with the ‘zero emission’ of carbon dioxide.

Why is Hydrogen important and various Ways of Its Production of various types :- 

Hydrogen is the most abundant element on the planet, but rarely in its pure form which is how we need it. It has an energy density almost three times that of diesel.

Major Challenge :- This phenomenon makes it a rich source of energy, but the challenge is to compress or liquify the LH2 (liquid hydrogen); it needs to be kept at a stable minus 253° C (far below the temperature of minus 163° C at which Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) is stored; entailing its ‘prior to use exorbitant cost’.

The ‘production cost’ of ‘Green hydrogen’ has been considered to be a prime obstacle. According to studies by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IREA), the production cost of this ‘green source of energy’ is expected to be around $1.5 per kilogram (for nations having perpetual sunshine and vast unused land), by the year 2030; by adopting various conservative measures.

The production techniques of this ‘Energy-Carrier’ vary depending upon its applications — designated with different colours such as black hydrogen, brown hydrogen, blue hydrogen, green hydrogen, etc.

Black hydrogen is produced by use of fossil fuel, whereas pink hydrogen is produced through electrolysis, but using energy from nuclear power sources.

How is Green Hydrogen Produced :- ‘Green hydrogen’, the emerging novel concept, is a zero-carbon fuel made by electrolysis using renewable power from wind and solar to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. This ‘Green hydrogen’ can be utilised for the generation of power from natural sources — wind or solar systems — and will be a major step forward in achieving the target of ‘net zero’ emission.

Power consumption in India :- India is the world’s fourth largest energy consuming country (behind China, the United States and the European Union), according to the IEA’s forecast, and will overtake the European Union to become the world’s third energy consumer by the year 2030. Realising the impending threats to economies, the Summit will see several innovative proposals from all over the world in order to reduce dependence on use of fossil fuels.

India’s plans :- India is also gradually unveiling its plans. The Indian Railways have announced the country’s first experiment of a hydrogen-fuel cell technology-based train by retrofitting an existing diesel engine; this will run under Northern Railway on the 89 km stretch between Sonepat and Jind.

Editorial 02 :- Fragile X Syndrome :  This is caused by changes in a gene called FMR1 which make an important protein (FMRP). This protein is required for brain development. 

This can be detected by DNA Blood Test.

The National Policy for Treatment of Rare Diseases, 2017, was limited by challenges in implementation. This year, the government introduced the National Policy for Rare Diseases Act. It calls for systematic epidemiological studies on incidence and prevalence of rare diseases. Without naming FXS directly, it recommends prenatal tests for lesser-known single-gene and other genetic disorders.

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