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11 June 2021 Mains Question of the Day

In the recent Past it has been observed that India is slowly becoming more and more Unitary and the states are left at the mercy of the Centre. Highlight the events and discuss the way forward.

GS-2 – Centre State Relationship

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Krishna Manger
Krishna Manger
12 days ago

Federation is a basic feature of Indian Constitution. Though India is not a complete federation like US but the framers of Constitution envisaged decentralisation of power between Centre and States as key to democratic set up of India.

The provisions in Constitution that make India a unitary state are:

National emergency U/A 352, Financial emergency U/A 360, State emergency or President’s rule U/A 356, power of Parliament to legislate in state list for National interest U/A 249, two or more state when request Parliament to legislate U/A 252, for international agreement U/A 253, appointment of governor, residuary powers to union, All India Services, etc.

These provisions are to be used under special circumstances but Centre is using them in a high- handedness manner. The invocation of President’s rule in Bihar during 1970s is testimony of abuse of Article 356. The frequent calls for President’s rule in West Bengal post 2021 Assembly election hint towards susceptibility of legitimate government formed by proper election.

As laid down in various SC judgements and as per the recommendations of Sarkaria commission the governors should be appointed in consultation with the CMs of respective state.
Centre to not encroach upon the legislative jurisdiction of states.
To use unitary provisions of Constitution only as a last resort.
To promote cooperative federalism through councils such as GST.
Provide financial autonomy to States.

India is a blend of various democratic set up which has survived for more than 70 years. The stakeholders should not alter drastically this to ensure diverse and unified India.

Ravi Thakur nasirabad
Ravi Thakur nasirabad
12 days ago

India has a federal form of constitution since independence. Which devide all powers between the centre and state. The centre and state are supreme in their respective fields, the maximum harmony and coordination between them is essential for the effective operation of the federal system.
They both are separated by legislative , adminstrative, and financial relations. But there are sum circumstances where the centre act as a guardian which can be valid uptil the sovereignty of the state is concerned.
Recently we see Mr Bandopadhyay ex ias was charged under sedition act 51 (b) of the disaster management act for failing to comply with the centre direction to attend the meeting. Centre allocate the cadre but they run as how state react. Here center has a high handed approach and it was a Revengeful approach .

India is a union of state and in this union the state govt. are not subordinate agencies of the central govt.

Saraswathi Priyanka
Saraswathi Priyanka
12 days ago

Plzz review…
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Saraswathi Priyanka
Saraswathi Priyanka
12 days ago

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Anjali Vishwakarma
Anjali Vishwakarma
12 days ago

I am unable to upload the picture of my answer as the file size should be min 2MB

Anjali Vishwakarma
Anjali Vishwakarma
12 days ago

India adopted a federalism form of govt. ,in which the power is divided betweemn the National govt. and other State govt. units. It contrasts with a unitary govt. ,in which a central authority (most probably Central Govt.) holds the power.
I In the recent past, it has been observed that India is slowly moving becoming more and more unitary because of the following events–
* Shift of Education in the Concurrent list.
* Introduction of GST, subsumed many taxes in it , leads to loss of taxation power of the State govt.
*During pandemic period GST compensation was denied by the Finance Minister by declaring it as ‘an act of God’.
*Cental govt has been encroaching into State’s govt. control through many Centrally sponsered schemes.
*Central govt. imposed lockdown at the time of pandemic without consulting State govt.
*Recent Centre-State tussle in case of Alapan Bandyopadhaya in state of West Bengal.
*Central institutions line Tax Dept. , ED, NIA, etc are used to intimidate opponents.
Thr above mentioned shows the clear picture of centralisation of power and political and administrative arrogance of Central govt towards the State govt.
As mentioned in Article 1 of the Constitution “India i.e. Bharat , is a union of States”. So the states are not subordinated agencies of the Central govt. Hence there is a need to improve the federalism in following ways —
1.. Strenthen the role of NITI Aayog in promoting cooperative federalism.
2. Centre’s support would be required by States to promote peace and harmony politically.
3. Regarding GST compensation there should be mutual talks between Centre and State.
4. Centre’s fund allocation and decision making regarding States must be done judiciously.
Hence , cooperation between Centre and States is required to ensure the proper growth of the country .

Dipti kumari
Dipti kumari
12 days ago

Answer :
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Dipti kumari
Dipti kumari
12 days ago

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SUDHA TIWARI
SUDHA TIWARI
12 days ago

Unitary form of government means the power is not shared between countries and state.
Some steps taken by government which shows the unitary form of gov.
1.THE IMPOSITION OF NATIONAL LOCKDOWN WITHOUT CONSULTATION OF STATES
2.GST WHICH WAS ENACTED IN 2017 UNDER THE CONTROL OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT
3.EMERGENCY PROVISION BY THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.
4.GOVERNOR GENERAL WHICH WORK FOR THE STATES BUT ELECTED ON THE RECOMMENDATION OF CENTRAL GOVERMENT.
5 THE ELECTION COMMISSION WHICH CONDUCTED ELECTION FOR BOTH CENTRE AS WELL AS STATES BUT THE POWER TO APPOINT THE ELECTION COMMISION IS ONLY ON THE HAND OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.
6.IN DELHI THE GOVERNOR POWER INCREASED BY THE CENTRE GOVERNMENT WITHOUT CONSULTATION WITH STATES.
7.INTRODUCTION OF NEW IT RULES
8.TRANSFER OF EX IAS OFFICER MR BANDOPADHYAY
9 INTRODUCTION OF NEW AGRICULTURAL REFORM BILL WITHOUT CONSULTATION WITH STATES .
9.IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR IMPLEMENTED 370 ARTICLE WITH SIMPLE MAJORITY
.WITHOUT CONSULTATION WITH THE STATES
10.SHIFT OF EDUCATION IN CONCURRENT LIST
WAY FORWARD
1.IMPLEMENTING ANY NEW PROPOSAL CENTRE HAVE TO FIRSTLY CONDUCTED MEETING REGARDING THAT, BECAUSE WE ALL ARE FAMILY MEMBER.
2.STRENTHEN THE ROLE OF NITI AYOG
3.REGARDING GST, THERE SHOULD BE MUTUAL DISCUSSION.
4.REGARDING FUND ALLOCATION, IT SHOULD BE IMPLEMENTED JUDICIARY.

Sudhanshu Mishra
Sudhanshu Mishra
12 days ago

Please Review-;

“India is a unitary state with subsidiary federal features i.e quasi federal”- Prof. Wheare.

Cooperative federalism places centre and states on horizontal footing for implementation and formulation of policies .
But,in recent times we have witnessed a tussle between two sets of governments.

RECENT EVENTS THAT DILUTES COOPERATIVE FEDERALISM-;

1- Decrease in Trust deficit- As southern states complain about their low devolution of funds for their good performance in population control.

2- Strain in Financial relations- As states have accepted “One nation one tax” regime their tax collection has decreased and centre is delaying in compensation deficit.

3- States are failing short in various welfare policies due to lack of funds .

4-During 1st wave ,Centre imposed lockdown in the country without states consent. And in 2nd wave tussle is over vaccine federalism.

5- Centre’s intervention in state subjects have increased significantly, as education is shifted to concurrent list and imposing health schemes over states.

WAY FORWARD-;

1- Micro- resource approach of allocation is needed instead of following one straight approach through umbrella planning.

2- Governor should act patiently and act as a bridge between states and centre.

3- Sudden increase of funds in divisible pool is needed .

4- Use e-governance effectively to consult with states in these pandemic times not as a subordinate agencies but as inviolable part of system.

Proactive involvement of states in federal system is need of the hour and centre must ensure and satisfy them for better functioning of democracy.

Rahul Rai
Rahul Rai
12 days ago



Preeti kumari
Preeti kumari
12 days ago

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Preeti kumari
Preeti kumari
12 days ago

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Utkarsh Amar
Utkarsh Amar
12 days ago

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Utkarsh Amar
Utkarsh Amar
12 days ago

Pager

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Priyanka Chauhan
Priyanka Chauhan
12 days ago

Article 1 of indian constitution clearly stated that “India, that is Bharat, shall be a UNION OF STATES. But this does not means that states are in subordination of the centre. India, being a quasi federal polity has divided powers between centre and states in VII schedule .
But, in recent, some events have shown as states are at the mercy of the centre, these are-

The GST implemented under art 246A by centre has snatched taxation powers of states . The promise given by Centre that it will compensate states for 5 years after implementation of GST. But in covid time , centre has moved back to fulfil its promise and told states the covid situation “AN ACT OF GOD”

The lockdown in whole of the country due to wake of covid 19 , does not matter it was beneficial or not , has implemented in the country without even consulting the states shows the centre’s overreaching powers .

The three farm laws has brought by the centre without adequate consultations with parties, states and stakeholders manifests centre’s power over states.

Recently, an IAS officer of west bengal was called on deputation by centre only because he skipped the meeting called by prime minister . It shows high handed and arrogance nature of central government.

Hence, for maintaining the federal polity and smooth functioning of the country, the role of states in of immense importance and they should be given autonomy on their internal matters , centre should uphold the constitution by proper adhering to division of powers , the opposition parties should be strengthened, pressure groups should work unbiased, and the role of GOVERNOR can play an important role for maintaining the federal nature of india.

Akanksha
Akanksha
12 days ago

Unity is strenth and India is worldwide known for unity since Independence but with Increasing unitary form of govt where power and decision making is enjoyed by single group

Recent semblance of unitary govt.
1 coming up with 3 farmers bills without states consultation
2not giving GST % share as decided
3 leaving it to states to buy there own vaccines
4 ADDING education sector in concurrent list
5 CONDUcting elections in raging covid pandemic
6 THE imposition of national lockdown without consultation
7GIVING power to leitenant governor than CM
8 IMPLEMENTATION of article 370 in J/K
9 Transfer of Ex IAS officer Mr BANDOPADHAY
10COming up with the new Reforms in laksho (lakshdeep preventation anti social activities regulations , lakshdeep development authority regulation

Suggestions
1meeting to be held on problem faced by states in covid or other
2 consultation should be seek before IMPLEMENTATION
3 promises made to states should be completed (eg GST %)

Mutual consultation,harmony will make India more prosperous and developed and states and centre can work more effective with problem that India is facing .

Please review …

Abha
Abha
12 days ago

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Abha
Abha
12 days ago

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Abhimanyu Singh
Abhimanyu Singh
12 days ago

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Abhimanyu Singh
Abhimanyu Singh
12 days ago

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Spurthy N Raju
Spurthy N Raju
12 days ago

Article 1 of indian constitution mentions India has a Union of states. However it provides for the right balance of unitary as well as federal structure.
Recent events of centralising tendencies
1. NCT of Delhi ( amendment ) act, 2021 Lt Governor synonymous to government also in many states governor acting as the agent of centre is the cause of concern.
2. West Bengal cadre IAS officer charged with sec 51 of NDMA…for leaving the meeting. Which shows the tit for tat attitude between centre and states.
3. GST compensation for the loss of revenue not provided to states quoting the pandemic as ‘ act of God’.
4. With the recent pandemic hitting India in two waves made centre to make many rules and laws in tackling the same…whereas health as a state subject caused concerns. Arogya setu app controversies.
5. State governments concerns like WB, Andhra walking out of PM JAY…CBI general consent withdrawn by West Bengal,Andhra etc.
6. MPLAD schemes funds suspended..
7.15th FC recommendation to move health into concurrent list. And so on
Way forward:
1. Democracy based on debates deliberations and discussions…no laws should be passed in haste manner.
2. Promote cooperative federalism through GST council…
3. Governors only constitutional head of the state…elected government should be given prominence. Incorporate sarkaria commission recommendations.
4. Interstate Councils and Zonal Council should be made work out for the cooperation.
5. Proper devolution of resources to state. Bottom up model should be followed.
6. Limited use of art 356…as a matter of last resort…and not as deadly weapons.
7. Decentralized planning model should be implemented to the full potential.

Sharandeep
Sharandeep
12 days ago

Unitary form of government is government where only single authority hold the whole power ,which is at the center, who control all power.

In india mixed (quasi- federal) , more or less federal, form of government means authority lies with both center as well as state.
But in recent past some incidents happened which showing the India’s inclination towords the unitary form.

  • Implementation of gst which reduced the source of collection of revenue, which makes state government to rely on center. And center’s refusal or giving excuses for not sharing of revenue which was promised before implementation of gst.

*And as we look at bengal’s formal chief secretary and ex ias mr. Bandyopadhyay case, CM Mamta benerjee called it unconstitutional and center’s hegemony

  • In case of delhi, lieutenant governor get absolute power, where CM has to discuss before any action.. or policy formation.

Hence, there is need to strengthening the federal structure of india.

*By making cooperation among them.

Waseem hassan
Waseem hassan
12 days ago

hi

Waseem hassan
Waseem hassan
12 days ago

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Gagandeep Kaur
Gagandeep Kaur
12 days ago

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Last edited 12 days ago by Gagandeep Kaur
Ankita Chavan
Ankita Chavan
12 days ago

India is a federal country,though not mentioned in the constitution.India is a “Union of states”.
Indian constitution usually contains features of federation viz,dual administration,division of powers,written constitution,supremacy of the judiciary and bicameralism.
However there are features of the Indian Constitution that reflect a centralising tendency:
1.Inequitable division of power (Union list contain more subjects than State list)
2.Emergency Provisions
3. Appointment of Governors
4.Flexibility of the constitution
5.Integrated constitutional offices
6.No territorial integrity with states
7.overindulgence of centre in state matters
8.More focus on centrally sponsored schemes
9.Mr.Bandopadhyay (IAS) incident of 2021
10.Imposition of lockdown
Political parties take opportunity to dilute the idea of federalism and democracy

Way forward:
1.Equitable distribution of power amongst states and centre states
2.financial autonomy to the states

Animesh
Animesh
12 days ago

Unitary centers
A.Covid compensation centre don’t full feel
B.Delhi event, Where Governor have more power then CM
C.NRC Issues
D.Farmer Act issue(MSP)
E.ED,CID work under centre to counter or weaken the opposition party.

Rajesh singh
Rajesh singh
12 days ago

1 st page plz review

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Rajesh singh
Rajesh singh
12 days ago

2nd page plz review

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PS Siddhartha
PS Siddhartha
11 days ago

Improve the literacy rate across the genders of society
Engage the awareness in schools related to sex education, human body
Possibly introduced the western concepts of dating, maturity and prom nights. Because of westernization in our culture, we just picked up from anywhere without comprehending the need of these concepts in our lifestyle
Bring equality/ equity of payscale at work level, Bring more women at higher authority and also enforce & upgrade POSH policies
Free education for children upto 12 years ( boys & girls) with introduction to ideas as given in point#2
Approve the ordinance for death penalty in case of rape ( be it minor or adult). Also in case someone from opposite uses this ordinance for their advantage( be it man/woman), take strict action rather being biased
Embrace fitness, martial arts if you will, for your own safety
Now why I focus on education (preferably sex education) because many men in our society who are least literate or cognizant of how reproduction happens or respect a woman for whom she is, thinks its her sole responsibility to give birth, determine the gender and only look after household. If this is being enforced, at-least the next generation will be wary for things to come. Western culture is dominating our traditions, so its better to learn the concepts and comprehend, rather use it to our favor without seeking others approval in society. Our society always draws authority of what is allowed or prohibited, thus we are slow maturing community to embrace any change. Better use education to mold the future minds. Point 4 is something to ponder but gets subjective in corporate world. Point 6 should be passed so that men who feel dominant to physically assault think hundred times, provided the case is reported. Self awareness and safety is something to endure, so point 7 is something that can help !

Utkarsh Tripathi
Utkarsh Tripathi
11 days ago

Nature doesn’t differentiate between the gender on such way as our patriarchal society do .it has been common phenomenon since vedic period but at recent the gap get more widen .to eliminate such gap we can follow some steps are as follows
1-we have to change mindset regarding gender .
2-eliminate prejudice of work division
3-appreciation of women work and give eqal footing to their services as men
4-A sense of care and respect must be given to them
5-division of work load and give them off from work atleast twice in a week
6-understand biological difference and use it in the favour of women instead of looking toward it to the reason of their incompetency
7-work place must follow the principle of eqal pay for eqal work
88-create safe and sound working environment for women~tried first time

Karishma pradhan
Karishma pradhan
11 days ago

Please review
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Karishma pradhan
Karishma pradhan
11 days ago

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