12 to 16 August 2022, Daily Current Affairs – THE EXAMS MADE SIMPLE

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Prelims Practices Questions

(I) Lake Tanganyika is located in:
(a) East Africa
(b) South America
(c) West Europe
(d) North America

(II.) Which of the following is correct order of events which precedes of Island Arcs due to convergence?
(a) Compression, Folding, Trenching, Volcanism
(b) Folding, Compression, Thrusting, Volcanism
(c) Compression, Thrusting, Folding, Trenching
(d) Compression, Folding, Volcanism, Trenching

(III.) Which among the following can be classified as Dissected Plateau?
(a) Tibetan Plateau
(b) Deccan Plateau
(c) Katanga Plateau
(d) Laurentian Plateau

Prelims Specific Facts

1) What is the News?
  • The Union Minister of Science and Technology has informed about the Startup and Research & Development(R&D) Ecosystem in the country.
  • About the Startup and Research & Development(R&D) Ecosystem in India
  • Startup Ecosystem in the Country: India ranks 3rd globally in Start-Up ecosystem and also in terms of number of Unicorns.
  • As per the latest data, there are currently 105 unicorns, out of which 44 were born in 2021 and 19 in 2022.
    • Note: Unicorns are privately held, venture-capital-backed startups that have reached a value of $1 billion.
  • India’s startups are not limited to only metros or big cities as around 49% of the start-ups are from tier-2 and tier-3 cities.
  • Scheme:
    • National Initiative for Developing and Harnessing Innovations (NIDHI) is an umbrella program of the Department of Science and Technology for nurturing ideas and innovations (knowledge-based and technology-driven) into successful startups.
  • India’s ranking in Global Innovation Index(GII):
    • India has created a massive jump in its global ranking of Global Innovation Index(GII) from 81st in the year 2015 to 46th in 2021 among 130 economies of the world.
2) What is the News?
  • A woman from Bengaluru has filed a petition in the Delhi High Court to stop her friend who has been suffering from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome since 2014 from travelling to Europe to undergo physician-assisted euthanasia.
  • What is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?
    • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME/CFS).
    • It is a serious and debilitating disease that affects the nervous system, the immune system and the body’s production of energy.
  • Causes:
    • Its causes are still unknown. However, the potential triggers would include viral or bacterial infection, hormonal imbalances and genetic predispositions. There is no specific test for the disease and doctors have to rely on medical examinations, and blood and urine tests.
  • Vulnerable Group:
    • ME/CFS can affect anyone from children to adults of all ages. But it is more common in women and people between 40 and 60 years old.
  • Symptoms:
    • The biggest symptom is significantly lowered ability to do activities that were performed before the illness. This is accompanied by at least 6 months (or longer) of debilitating fatigue that is more severe than everyday feelings of tiredness. This fatigue is not relieved by sleep or rest and exercising usually makes the symptoms worse.
  • The most recognizable symptom is post-exertional malaise( PEM). Patients often describe it as a “crash” in physical/mental energy following even minor activities like grocery shopping or brushing teeth.
3) National Action Plan for Mechanized Sanitation Ecosystem(NAMASTE): Government to enumerate people who clean sewers
  • The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MoSJ&E) is now preparing to undertake a nationwide survey to enumerate all people engaged in hazardous cleaning of sewers and septic tanks.
  • About the survey
    • Reason: Cleaning of sewers and septic tanks has led to at least 351 deaths since 2017.
    • Conducted by: The nationwide survey to enumerate all people engaged in the hazardous cleaning of sewers and septic tanks will be conducted across 500 AMRUT (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation) cities.
    • The survey will be conducted as a part of the National Action Plan for Mechanized Sanitation Ecosystem (NAMASTE).
  • Is Sanitation work different from Manual Scavenging?
    • There is a proper distinction between sanitation work and manual scavenging. The practice of manual scavenging no longer takes place in the country as all manual scavengers had been accounted for and enrolled on the rehabilitation scheme.
  • What is the National Action Plan for Mechanized Sanitation Ecosystem (NAMASTE)?
    • Nodal Ministries: It is a joint project of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment and the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA).
    • Aim: To eradicate unsafe sewer and septic tank cleaning practices.
    • Replaced by: The scheme will replace the Self-Employment Scheme for the Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS), which was started in 2007.
    • Features of the Scheme: Under the scheme, capital subsidies of up to ₹5 lakh on sanitation machinery costing up to ₹15 lakh will be provided so that workers will be able to own sanitation machines themselves.
  • Interest subsidies on loans will also be provided where interest rates will be capped between 4-6% for the beneficiaries with the government taking care of the rest of the interest.
  • In addition, the scheme also provides for training the workers in the use of these machines, during which time a stipend of up to ₹3,000 per month will be provided.
  • The scheme will also provide for sanitation workers to train for and go into any of the approved lists of alternative occupations in sectors like agriculture, services, electronics assembling, handicrafts and so on.
4) What is the News?
  • The Nature Index 2022 was recently released. Survey for the index was conducted based on research articles published in chemistry, life sciences, physical sciences and earth & environment. Rankings were provided on the basis of information secured during April 1, 2021, to march 31, 2022.
  • Highlights of Nature Index 2022 :
    • In the index, University of Hyderabad has secured first position among Indian Universities while has been placed at 16th position among all institutions in academic sector.
    • Hyderabad was ranked first with 72 research papers and a share of 19.46 in academic sector.
  • This index is a database of affiliations of author and relationships of institution. It records contributions to research articles, published across 82 high-quality natural science journals. These journals are selected by an independent group of researchers. This database is compiled by Nature Research. It provides real-time proxy of high-quality research output. It is updated monthly.
5) What is the News?
  • The National Intellectual Property Awareness Mission (NIPAM) was launched on December 8, 2021 by Ministry of Commerce & Industry in association with Intellectual Property Office and Office of Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks (CGPDTM). Under this programme, awareness and training are provided on Intellectual Property (IP).
  • This scheme has met its goal of training one million students on July 31, 2022, before the deadline of August 15, 2022.
  • As a part of the initiative, following milestones have been achieved: of participants including students or faculty, trained on Intellectual Property stands at 10,05,272.
  • 3662 educational institutes have been covered.
  • About National Intellectual Property Awareness Mission:
    • The National Intellectual Property Awareness Mission targets students in two levels:
    • Level A– It includes school students of class 9th to 12th.
    • Level B – It includes students from Universities or Colleges
  • This programme was launched with the aim of raising and stimulating innovation and creativity, and thus contributing to cultural and economic development of society. It seeks to contribute towards creation of an Aatmanirbhar Bharat by increasing awareness on IP among one million students across India.
6) What is the News?
  • SMILE-75 Initiative :- Under the Smile-75 initiative, Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment has marked 75 Municipal Corporations for comprehensive rehabilitation of person practicing the act of bagging. This initiative has been started as a part of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav.Important facts related to SMILE-75 Initiative include;
  • SMILE stands for “Support for Marginalised Individuals for Livelihood and Enterprise”.
  • 75 Municipal Corporations, experts associated with the field of beggary and NGOs will take part in nationwide launch in online and offline mode.
  • As a part of the initiative, identified Municipal Corporations will cover several comprehensive welfare measures in association with NGOs and other stakeholders, for persons engaged in the act of begging.
  • They will focus on rehabilitation, counselling, education, awareness, provision of medical facilities, skill development and economic linkages with other Government welfare initiatives.
7) What is the News?
  • Culture Ministry-Google ‘India ki Udaan’ initiative :-
    • Ministry of Culture has launched “India ki Udaan” initiative in association with Google. This initiative seeks to celebrate unwavering & undying spirit of India and its achievements in last 75 years.
  • About India ki Udaan Initiative:
    • India ki Udaan Initiative was launched as a part of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav.
    • It is the celebration of unwavering and undying spirit of India.
    • It aims to take citizens to the rich culture & heritage of India, by means of its rich archives and featuring artistic illustrations.
    • This project is launched based on the Theme- ‘Unwavering and undying spirit of India over the past 75 years”.
    • It is being implemented by Google Arts and Culture, in association with Ministry of Culture.
    • Under the initiative, users will be provided with a unique view to witness India’s remarkable moments virtually.
8) What is the News?
  • To commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of Shri Aurobindo Ghosh, central government is holding spiritual programmes from August 12 to August 15, 2022, across 75 prisons in India. This programme will help in transforming the inmates’ lives by inculcating philosophy of Shri Aurobindo.
  • Highlights:
    • Ministry of culture has marked 75 prisons in India, by considering their association with freedom struggle of India.
    • Programmes will be held with the objective of transforming lives of prison inmates by teaching them the philosophy of Shri Aurobindo and by practicing yoga and meditation.
  • Sri Aurobindo was an Indian philosopher, maharishi, yoga guru, poet, and Indian nationalist. He was also the editor of newspapers like Vande Mataram. He took part in Indian movement for independence from British. Until 1910, he was among influential leaders of independence movement. Later, he became spiritual reformer and put forward his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution. He was born on August 15, 1872 in Calcutta (Kolkata) and died in Pondicherry (Puducherry). In Puducherry, Sri Aurobindo Ashram was established in 1926.
9) What is the News?
  • Udarashakti is a bilateral exercise between Indian Air Force (IAF) and Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF).
10) What is the News?
  • China and Nepal recently gave their consent to construct “Trans-Himalayan Multi-Dimensional Connectivity Network”. China will also give a grant assistance of USD 118 million to Nepal, to undertake several projects in 2022. Highlights of the China-Nepal agreement: Under the agreement, China will finance the feasibility study of a China-Nepal cross-border railway.

11) What is the News?

  • Another zoonotic virus, Langya, was recently discovered in China, after deadly coronavirus was detected in 2019. It is a type of Henipavirus, and is also called as Langya Henipavirus or LayV. It was detected in Shandong and Henan provinces in China and has infected 35 people so far.
  • Langya Virus is a phylogenetically distinct Henipavirus. Henipaviruses are categorised as biosafety level 4 (BSL4) pathogens. It is responsible for serious illness in animals and humans. Prior to Langya virus, other viruses in Henipavirus category include- Hendra, Cedar, Nipah, Mojiang and Ghanaian bat virus.
  • About Langya Virus:
    • Langya virus causes fever. However, deeper investigation of other associated illness in underway. Genome sequencing of Langya is similar to that of Henipaviruses. It is also related to “Mojiang Henipavirus, which was discovered in China.
    • Langya virus was first identified while testing patients with fever and recent exposure to animal in eastern China.
    • Virus was identified and isolated from throat swab sample the patients.
12) 11 more wetland sites get Ramsar tag, tally rises to 75
  • Of the 11 new sites, four are in Tamil Nadu, three in Odisha, two Jammu and Kashmir, and one each in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, the environment ministry said in a statement.
  • India in 1982 became a signatory to the 1971 Ramsar Convention, whose mission is “the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development throughout the world”.
  • From 1982 to 2013, a total of 26 sites were added to the list of Ramsar sites in the country. From 2014 to 2022, another 49 additions were made.
  • The latest additions are Tampara Lake (300 hectares), Hirakud Reservoir (65,400 hectares) and Ansupa Lake (231 hectares) in Odisha; Yashwant Sagar (822.90 hectares) in Madhya Pradesh; Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary (260.47 hectares), Suchindram Theroor Wetland Complex (94.23 hectares), Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary (112.64 hectares) and Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary (96.89 hectares) in Tamil Nadu; Thane Creek (6,521.08 hectares) in Maharashtra; and Hygam Wetland Conservation Reserve (801.82 hectares) and Shallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve (1,675 hectares) in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Wetlands are disappearing at three times the rate of forests globally, but these sites show that wetlands can thrive in urban areas, and as man-made or natural entities.
13) Country facing twin challenges of corruption and nepotism
  • Red Fort in New Delhi on the 76th Independence Day
  • Ninth consecutive speech from the Red Fort.
  • Laying down five resolutions for Indians to fulfil as the country enters the ‘amrit kaal’, Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his Independence Day speech said that we must work towards a ‘viksit bharat’ (developed India).
  • Calling it the ‘panch pran‘ — the five resolutions to help India become a developed nation in the next 25 years — he said, every Indian should focus on developing the country; 100 per cent freedom from slavery (100% Azadi from Ghulami); taking pride in Indian heritage; ensuring importance is given to unity and integrity and every citizen should be responsible.
  • PM Modi unfurled the National Flag amid a 21-gun salute by the indigenously developed howitzer gun, ATAGS.
  • “Panch Pran” (five resolves) to fulfil the dreams of freedom fighters for the country by 2047, the centenary of In dependence.
  • Mr. Modi said that Indians should focus on the five pledges – a resolve for a developed India, removing any trace of the colonial mind set, taking pride in our legacy, our strength of unity, and fulfilling the duties of citizens with honesty, which should be done by the Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers as well.
  • Also hitting out at dynasty and nepotism, he said their presence in politics nourished this evil in all other institutions of the country. This must be ended, he said. “This nepotism harms India’s talents and capabilities. This is also a reason for corruption as people resort to it when they see no other option.
  • Dynastic politics is aimed at a family’s welfare and has no interest in the country’s welfare.

14) What is the News?

  • The gates of Hyderi Manzil, or Gandhi Bhawan, as it is called these days, remained closed till 10 a.m. on August 15, 2022, when the caretaker of the building in Kolkata’s Beleghata neighbourhood arrived and started wiping a marble statue of Mahatma Gandhi in the courtyard.
  • Gandhi Bhawan felt as lonely in the 75th year of Independence as it was on August 15, 1947, when Gandhi stayed in this single-storey house on the day the country secured its freedom.
15) Tripura Bru refugees celebrate I-Day in their new settlements
  • The Bru (Reang) refugees from Mizoram who got permanent resident status in Tripura following the signing of a quadripartite accord in 2020, celebrated the 76th In dependence Day in their new settlements.
  • About the Bru-Reang refugee agreement:
    • The agreement, signed in January this year, is between Union Government, Governments of Tripura and Mizoram and Bru-Reang representatives to end the 23-year old Bru-Reang refugee crisis.
  • Highlights of the agreement:
    • Under the agreement , the centre has announced a package of Rs. 600 crore under this agreement.
    • As per the agreement the Brutribes would be given land to reside in Tripura.
    • A fixed deposit of Rs. 4 lakh will be given to each family as an amount of government aid. They will be able to withdraw this amount after two years.
    • Each of the displaced families will be given 40×30 sq ft residential plots.
    • Apart from them, each family will be given Rs. 5,000 cash per month for two years.
    • The agreement highlights that each displaced family will also be given free ration for two years and aid of Rs. 1.5 lakh to build their houses.
  • Need for:
    • More than 30,000 Bru tribes who fled Mizoram, are residing in Tripura’s refugee camps.
    • This agreement will bring a permanent solution for the rehabilitation of thousands of Bru-Reang people in Tripura. They will be able to enjoy the benefits of all social-welfare schemes of governments.
  • Who are Brus?
    • The Brus, also referred to as the Reangs, are spread across the northeastern states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur, and Mizoram.
    • In Tripura, they are recognised as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group. In Mizoram, they have been targeted by groups that do not consider them indigenous to the state.

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