1) Gap junction delta 2b sometimes seen in news is a?
A) A specific type of protein found in Zebrafish
B) Gap between two electrons in a semiconductor
C)Cold fusion nuclear reactor developed by China
D)Deepest point in Pacific Ocean
2) With reference to CVC, consider the following statements:
1. It is a constitutional body.
2. It works under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
Both 1 and 2
Neither 1 nor 2
3)With reference to Red Sanders, consider the following statements:
1. It is classified as Near Threatened in the IUCN Red list.
2. It is listed under Appendix II of CITES and thus banned from international trade.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
Both 1 and 2
Neither 1 nor 2
4) The Digha Nikaya is the compilation of the long discourses of Buddha – was translated in English by which of the following?
- James Prinsep
- Max Mueller
- Sir Charles Wilkins
- Alexander Cunningham
5) Which of the following is/are correct matched?
Buddhist Writer : Book/works
- Ashavaghosha : Visuddhimagga
- Buddhaghosa : Buddhacharita
- Vasubandhu : Abhidharmakosa
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
1 and 2 only
2 and 3 only
6) Which of the following is NOT Triratna of Jainism?
- Right faith
- Right knowledge
- Right Conduct
- Right livelihood
7) Cavallo Effect sometimes seen in news is associated with?
- The inflation-producing effects of high interest rates.
- Relation of demographic dividend with decline in fertility.
- Gain in tax revenue with decrease in tax rates.
- Variation in spending on a certain good with variations in household income.
8) With reference to ISRO’s space missions, consider the following:
1. Trishna is the upcoming collaborative mission between ISRO and NASA.
2. India’s first satellite was Bhaskara.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
Both 1 and 2
Neither 1 nor 2
9) Article 212 of the Indian constitution, is related to which of the following:
- Courts not to inquire into the proceedings of the legislature.
- Ordinance making power of Governor.
- Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.
- Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.
10) Justice Tarkunde Committee sometimes in news is associated with?
- Digital Surveillance
- Electoral reforms
- Unemployment and public welfare
11) With reference to Africa50 platform, consider the following statements:
1. All African countries are members of the platform.
2. It is an infrastructure investment platform that contributes to Africa’s economic growth.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
Both 1 and 2
Neither 1 nor 2
12) Arrange the following countries from North to South:
2. EL Salvador
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
1 2 3
3 2 1
1 3 2
3 1 2
Prelims Specific News Items
1) House can’t suspend member for more than 59 days, says Supreme Court :-
What is the News?
Supreme Court (SC) is hearing the case of suspension of 12 BJP MLAs from Maharashtra Assembly for one year.
What is Supreme Court’s ruling?
SC has ruled that the suspension of MLAs for one year is prima facie unconstitutional. Because there is a constitutional bar to it.
Under Article 190(4) of the Constitution, if a member of a House is absent from all meetings without its permission for a period of 60 days, the House may declare the seat vacant.
SC further said that while the House has power to suspend a member, it cannot be for more than 59 days. Also, each constituency has an equal amount of right to be represented in the House, and none can represent these constituencies in the absence of the elected MLAs.
2) The Henley Passport Index 2022 has been released.
What is the Henley Passport Index?
Released by: Henley and Partners, a London-based global citizenship and residence advisory firm since 2005.
Purpose: To rank 199 passports according to the number of destinations their holders can access without a prior visa.
Source of Data: The index is based on exclusive data provided by the International Air Transport Association(IATA).
What are the key findings of the Henley Passport Index 2022?
India’s ranking has improved this time. It now ranks at 83rd in the Index, climbing seven places from 90th rank in 2021.
India now has visa-free access to 60 destinations worldwide, with Oman and Armenia being the latest additions. India has added 35 more destinations since 2006.
Japan and Singapore have topped the index. The citizens of these countries can travel visa-free to 192 destinations.
As with previous years, Afghanistan scores at the bottom, making it the least powerful passport in the world. Afghan passport holders can only travel to 26 destinations visa-free. Iraq (28), Syria (29), Pakistan (31), and Yemen (33) also rank very low.
In 2006, an individual could on average visit 57 countries visa-free. Currently, that number has risen to 107. However, this overall increase marks a growing disparity between countries in the global north and those in the global south with nationals from countries such as Sweden and the US able to visit more than 180 destinations visa-free while passport holders from Angola, Cameroon, and Laos can only enter about 50.
3) Union Home Minister is expected to seal the final agreement to end the dispute in six areas of the Assam-Meghalaya boundary ahead of Meghalaya’s 50th Statehood Day celebration on January 21.
Assam- Meghalaya Boundary Dispute
Assam-Meghalaya border dispute is an old problem attributed to different readings of the demarcation of the boundaries from the agreement inked at the time of the creation of Meghalaya as a separate state from Assam in 1972.
WHY ASSAM-MEGHALAYA BORDER IS IN DISPUTE?
Assam and Meghalaya share an 885-km-long border. As of now, there are 12 points of dispute along their borders.
The Assam-Meghalaya border dispute are the areas of Upper Tarabari, Gazang reserve forest, Hahim, Langpih, Borduar, Boklapara, Nongwah, Matamur, Khanapara-Pilangkata, Deshdemoreah Block I and Block II, Khanduli and Retacherra.
Meghalaya was carved out of Assam under the Assam Reorganisation Act, 1971, a law that it challenged, leading to disputes.
A major point of contention between Assam and Meghalaya is the district of Langpih in West Garo Hills bordering the Kamrup district of Assam. Langpih was part of the Kamrup district during the British colonial period but post-Independence, it became part of the Garo Hills and Meghalaya.
4)The President has greeted the people of India on the occasion of Makar Sankranti and Pongal festivals.
Makar Sankranti :-
Makar Sankranti or Uttarayan or Maghi or simply Sankranti is considered as the transition day of Sun into the Capricorn.
Now the sun moves northwards in the Hindu calendar.
Dedicated to the deity Surya, many native festivals are organized all over India.
It mostly falls at the end of Kharif harvests.
Statewise festivals celebration
Pongal: In South India and particularly in Tamil Nadu, it’s the festival of Pongal which is being celebrated over 4 days at harvest time.
Lohri: It is celebrated in North India particularly in Punjab as a traditional winter folk festival or as a popular harvest festival of farmers.
Bhogi: In Andhra Pradesh, it is celebrated as a four day festival with a bonfire with logs of wood, other solid-fuels, and wooden furniture at home that are no longer useful.
Magha Bihu: In Assam and many parts of the North East, the festival of Magha Bihu is celebrated. It sees the first harvest of the season being offered to the gods along with prayers for peace and prosperity.
Uttarayan: Gujarat celebrates it in the form of the convivial kite festival of Uttarayan.
Saaji: In Shimla District of Himachal Pradesh, Makara Sankranti is known as Magha Saaji. Saaji is the Pahari word for Sankranti, start of the new month. Hence this day marks the start of the month of Magha.
5) Difference between WPI and CPI
WPI measures the average change in prices of goods at the wholesale level while CPI calculates the average change in prices of goods and services at the retail level.
WPI data is published by the Office of Economic Adviser, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, while CPI data is published by the National Statistical Office (NSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).
The base year for WPI is 2011-12 while the base year for CPI is 2012.
WPI takes into account the change in price of goods only, while CPI takes into account the change in process of both goods and services.
6) Indu Malhotra panel to probe security breach :- The Supreme Court on Wednesday appointed a committee chaired by its former judge Indu Malhotra to inquire into a security breach that led to Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s convoy being stuck on a flyover in Punjab on January 5.
7) 21,000-km walk for blood donation awareness:- Kiran Verma, who runs Simply Blood, a virtual blood donation platform, is on a mission to create awareness about the importance of donating blood.
Kiran started his 21,000km walk across the nation from Thiruvananthapuram on December 28 to create awareness of blood donation so that “nobody should die waiting for blood in India after December 31, 2025”.
8) Somanath appointed new Chairman of ISRO :- Eminent rocket scientist S. Somanath has been appointed Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and Space Secretary.
Dr. Somanath is taking over the reins of ISRO at a critical juncture when sweeping reforms and critical missions are set to define the forward journey of the storied space agency.
About In-Space :-
IN-SPACe is an independent nodal agency under Department of Space for allowing space activities and usage of DOS owned facilities by NGPEs as well as to prioritise the launch manifest.
IN-SPACe is to be established as a single window nodal agency, with its own cadre, which will permit and oversee the following activities of NGPEs.
Space activities including building of launch vehicles and satellites and providing space based services as per the definition of space activities.
Sharing of space infrastructure and premises under the control of ISRO with due considerations to on-going activities.
Establishment of temporary facilities within premises under ISRO control based on safety norms and feasibility assessment
Establishment of new space infrastructure and facilities, by NGPEs, in pursuance of space activities based on safety norms and other statutory guidelines and necessary clearances.
Initiation of launch campaign and launch, based on readiness of launch vehicle and spacecraft systems, ground and user segment.
Building, operation and control of spacecraft for registration as Indian Satellite by NGPEs and all the associated infrastructure for the same.
Usage of spacecraft data and rolling out of space based services and all the associated infrastructure for the same.
9) Forest Survey of India Report 2021 :-
Forest Survey report 2021 released; increase of 2,261 sq km in the total forest and tree cover of the country in last two years.
Area-wise Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover in the country
Maximum increase in forest cover witnessed in Andhra Pradesh (647 sq km) followed by Telangana (632 sq km) and Odisha (537 sq km).
17 states/UT’s have above 33 percent of the geographical area under forest cover.
Total carbon stock in country’s forest is estimated to be 7,204 million tonnes, an increase of 79.4 million
Total mangrove cover in the country is 4,992 sq km, an increase of 17 sq Km observed.
10) The Lithuania-China kerfuffle :- In November 2021, a Taiwanese Representative Office was opened in Lithuania, notable because it is for the first time that Taiwan was allowed to use its own name to open an office within the EU.
Following this, China has downgraded its diplomatic relations with Lithuania, calling it a violation of the “One China Policy”. China has also unofficially boycotted products from Lithuania, whether it is sourced directly or indirectly from the country.
Lithuania has so far not backtracked on its actions against China. Taiwan, the U.S. and the EU have expressed their support to Lithuania in what has been termed as a “David vs Goliath” battle.
Lithuania, being the first constituent of the Soviet Union to break out as an independent state, has its own historical context and ideological rationale for standing up to China. The new Government of Lithuania espouses a “values based” foreign policy based on democracy and freedom, and had explicitly offered support to the cause of Taiwan in 2020 itself.
Lithuania has been one of the biggest critics of China within the EU on the Xinjiang and Hong Kong issues. Lithuania
supported Taiwan’s pitch to become an observer at the World Health Organization in 2020 against China’s opposition in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.
11) mmWave band in 5G auctions :-
Millimetre Wave band or mmWave is a particular segment of radio frequency spectrum that range between 24 GHz and 100 GHz.
This spectrum, as the name suggests, has a short wavelength, and is apt to deliver greater speeds and lower latencies. This in turn makes data transfer efficient and seamless as the current available networks work optimally only on lower frequency bandwidths.
5G services can be deployed using lower frequency bands. They can cover greater distances and are proven to work efficiently even in urban environments, which are prone to interference. But, when it comes to data speeds, these bands fail to hit peak potential needed for a true 5G experience. So, mmWave is that quintessential piece in the 5G jigsaw puzzle for mobile service providers.
12) Child’s welfare key in custody battle: SC
Supreme Court on Child’s Custody :-
A child’s welfare, and not the legal rights of the parents, is the paramount concern in a custody battle, the
Supreme Court has held.
In fact, the parents’ rights are “irrelevant” in such cases, a recent judgment by a Bench of Justices Ajay Rastogi
and Abhay S. Oka said.
The apex court laid down that no court can force a parent to travel abroad with the child in question in a custody battle or compel him or her to reside in a foreign country against their wishes. That would be a violation of the
parent’s privacy, it said.
13) Philippines approves deal for BrahMos missile :-
BRAHMOS supersonic cruise missile featuring Indian propulsion system, airframe, power supply, and other major indigenous components has been successfully test-fired.
- BRAHMOS is a joint venture between the Defence Research and Development Organisation of India (DRDO) and the NPOM of Russia.
- Brahmos is named on the rivers Brahmaputra and Moskva.
- It is a two-stage (solid propellant engine in the first stage and liquid ramjet in second) air to surface missile with a flight range of around 300 km.
- However, India’s entry into the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) has extended the range of the BRAHMOS missile to reach 450 km-600km, a shade above its current MTCR capped range of 300 km.
- Brahmos is the heaviest weapon to be deployed on Su-30 MKI fighter aircraft, with a weight of 2.5 tonnes.
- Brahmos is a multiplatform i.e it can be launched from land, air, and sea and multi capability missile with pinpoint accuracy that works in both day and night irrespective of the weather conditions.
- It operates on the “Fire and Forgets” principle i.e it does not require further guidance after launch.
- Brahmos is one of the fastest cruise missile currently operationally deployed with speed of Mach 2.8, which is 3 times more than the speed of sound.
14) Muscles starve in the absence of vitamin D, study of mice finds :- Skeletal muscles normally brim with energy, yet they starve in the absence of Vitamin D, says recent research led by Aneesh kumar A. G. of National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi. This research demonstrates that glycogen stored in the skeletal muscles is not converted
into a usable form of energy without Vitamin D.
Usually, the glucose absorbed from the food is converted into glycogen and stored in the skeletal muscle.
This stored energy reserve is used by muscles to produce energy after the food consumed is digested. However,
in the absence of vitamin D, the skeletal muscle is starved of energy, decreasing muscle mass.
Muscle wasting Vitamin D deficiency is often associated with rickets. In rickets, the bone tissue does not correctly mineralise calcium and phosphorus, leading to softening of bones resulting in skeletal deformities. However, we are becoming aware that vitamin D works more as a hormone than and is involved in a host of biochemical reactions. It is key to maintaining metabolic functions, immune system, bone health and plays a crucial role in depression, mood swings, anxiety and sleep quality.
15) Why is India challenging WTO verdict on sugar?
India this week filed an appeal with the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization (WTO) disputing a verdict by the WTO’s dispute settlement panel on sugar subsidies.
The WTO’s dispute settlement panel had ruled that India, by subsidising sugar producers, was breaking rules framed under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which govern international trade.
Background: What is it?
- In 2019, Australia, Brazil, and Guatemala complained against India at the WTO arguing that subsidies offered by the Indian government to sugar producers were against the rules governing international trade.
- They argued that these subsidies, which include both domestic subsidies as well as export subsidies, exceed the limits imposed by WTO trade rules.
- According to WTO rules, subsidies cannot exceed 10% of the total value of sugar production.
- These countries believe that subsidies offered by India have led to increased production of sugar and caused the price of sugar to drop significantly in the global market.
- After two years, the WTO ruled that India’s sugar policy was favouring domestic producers through subsidies to the detriment of foreign producers.
- The panel recommended that India withdraws its alleged prohibited subsidies under the Production Assistance, the Buffer Stock, and the Marketing and Transportation Schemes within 120 days from the adoption of this report.
- India has stated that the WTO’s dispute panel ruling has made certain “erroneous” findings about domestic schemes to support sugarcane producers and exports and the findings of the panel are completely “unacceptable” to it.
WTO’s Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM):
The WTO Agreement on SCM disciplines the use of subsidies, and it regulates the actions countries can take to counter the effects of subsidies.
Under the agreement, a country can use the WTO’s dispute-settlement procedure to seek the withdrawal of the subsidy or the removal of its adverse effects. or
The country can launch its own investigation and ultimately charge extra duty (“countervailing duty”) on subsidised imports that are found to be hurting domestic producers.
WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture:
It is aimed to remove trade barriers and to promote transparent market access and integration of global markets.
The WTO’s Agriculture Committee oversees implementation of the Agreement and provides a forum for members to address related concerns.
Sugarcane Industry in India:
India is the second-largest sugar producer in the world after Brazil and it is estimated that more than 5 crore people depend on the cultivation of sugarcane alone for their livelihood.
Sugar industry is broadly distributed over two major areas of production- Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana and Punjab in the north and Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in the south.
South India has tropical climate which is suitable for higher sucrose content giving higher yield per unit area as compared to north India.
What is India’s stand in WTO Judgement?
- India has argued at the WTO that it does not offer direct subsidies to sugarcane farmers and thus doesn’t break any international trade rule.
- This argument, however, has not convinced other countries who point out that, among other things, the Centre and the State governments in India mandate the minimum price (the Fair and Remunerative Price, or FRP) at which sugar mills can buy sugarcane from farmers.
- In 2021, the Centre set the FRP at ₹290 per quintal and called it the “highest ever” FRP for sugarcane procurement.
- Individual States also set minimum procurement prices that may be higher than the Centre’s price to adjust for conditions at the local level.
- The high procurement price for sugarcane set by the Government is believed to have led to a supply glut that in turn has caused sugar prices to drop.
- In fact, several sugar mills are caught in a debt trap as consumer demand for sugar has remained stagnant.
- The low price of sugar has affected the revenues of mills, their ability to pay farmers and also forced many mills to shut down.
Government Policies to aid Sugar Industry:
- To help the sugar sector, the Centre has even mandated the compulsory blending of ethanol derived from sugarcane with fuels such as petrol and diesel.
- According to the Food Ministry, the country’s sugar production is likely to remain flat at 30.5 million tonnes in the next 2021-22 season as more sugarcane will be diverted for ethanol making.
- State governments and the Centre have also regularly intervened to reduce the debt burden on sugar mills.
- Earlier this month, the Centre decided to restructure loans worth over ₹3,000 crore offered to sugar mills by the Sugar Development Fund.
- Without such assistance, it may not be possible for sugar mills to procure sugarcane from farmers at the minimum prices dictated by the government.
- Further, the Centre also regularly sanctions funds to encourage sugar mills to export sugar depending on sugar prices in the global market.
- In the budget last year, the Centre allocated a total of ₹3,500 crore to fund the export of 6 million tonnes of sugar.
India also said that the “complainants have failed to meet their burden of showing” that India’s market price support for sugarcane, and its various schemes violate the Agreement on Agriculture.
It also argued that “the requirements of Article 3 of the SCM Agreement are not yet applicable to India and that India has a phase-out period of 8 years to eliminate export subsidies, if any, pursuant to Article 27 of the SCM Agreement.
What lies ahead?
The WTO Appellate Body’s decision will be considered final on the dispute.
- In case India refuses to comply with the decision, it might have to face retaliatory action from other countries.
- This could be in the form of additional tariffs on Indian exports and other stringent measures.
- Such retaliatory measures may benefit producers in these countries but affect consumers who have enjoyed lower sugar prices due to subsidies offered by India.
- It should be noted that the WTO was founded to prevent exactly such tit-for-tat tariffs that shrink international trade.
- Incidentally, the appellate body of the WTO is not functioning because of differences among member countries to appoint members, and disputes are already pending with it. The U.S. had blocked the appointment of members.
India has initiated all measures necessary to protect its interests and to file an appeal at the WTO against the report to protect the interests of its farmers.
Government said that there will be “no impact of the WTO panel’s findings on sugar on any of India’s existing and ongoing policy measures in the sugar sector.”
The Sugar sector needs infusion of capital, but also policy measures and structural changes.
Technological upgradation in age old mills especially in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar to improve efficiency in production.
16) Pig to Human Heart Transfer :- On January 7, David Bennett, a 57-year-old from Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. became the first person to receive a heart transplant from a genetically-modified pig.
Surgeons at the University of Maryland Medical Center transplanted the porcine heart into Mr. Bennett suffering from terminal heart failure. Since transplantation of a pig heart into a human, called xenotransplantation, is an experimental procedure, doctors had to seek an emergency authorisation from the U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration).
India is ranked 101 among 116 countries in the Global Hunger Index (GHI), 2021. The country continues to be in the severe hunger category. The GHI report said that wasting “weight for height” among children in India increased from 17.1% between 1998 and 2002 to 17.3% between 2016 and 2020.
The hunger problem has been exacerbated by the pandemic.
People who used to go for work as migrant wage labour are stuck in their villages. Weekly bazaars in the villages were not functional during the lockdown, causing loss of livelihood.
People living in villages in the forests can’t do farming in the forest land.
The constant state of hunger can lead to different morbidities and subsequent mortalities in the worst conditions. Poverty remains a grave concern in India. Food inadequacy and hard and hazardous work conditions lead to diseases such as tuberculosis and silicosis, often leading to death.
18) Web3: A vision for the future
The concept of Web3, also called Web 3.0, used to describe a potential next phase of the internet, created quite a buzz in 2021.
What is Web3?
- The model, a decentralized internet to be run on blockchain technology, would be different from the versions in use, Web 1.0 and Web 2.0.
- In web3, users will have ownership stakes in platforms and applications unlike now where tech giants control the platforms.
Previous versions of Web
To understand web3, we should start with Web 1.0 and Web 2.0.
 Web 1
- Web 1.0 is the world wide web or the internet that was invented in 1989. It became popular from 1993.
- The internet in the Web 1.0 days was mostly static web pages where users would go to a website and then read and interact with the static information.
- Even though there were e-commerce websites in the initial days it was still a closed environment and the users themselves could not create any content or post reviews on the internet.
- Web 1.0 lasted until 1999.
 Web 2
- Web 2.0 started in some form in the late 1990s itself though 2004 was when most of its features were fully available. It is still the age of Web 2.0 now.
- The differentiating characteristic of Web 2.0 compared to Web 1.0 is that users can create content.
- They can interact and contribute in the form of comments, registering likes, sharing and uploading their photos or videos and perform other such activities.
- Primarily, a social media kind of interaction is the differentiating trait of Web 2.0.
What are some of the concerns?
- In Web 2.0, most of the data in the internet and the internet traffic are owned or handled by very few behemoth companies ex. Google.
- This has created issues related to data privacy, data security and abuse of such data.
- There is a sense of disappointment that the original purpose of the internet has been distorted.
- It is in this context that the buzz around Web3 is significant.
Dawn of Web3
- Gavin Wood, founder of Ethereum, a block chain technology company, used the term Web3 first in 2014 and in the past few years many others have added to the idea of Web3.
- In 2021, owing to the popularity of crypto-currency, more discussions happened on Web3.
How will Web3 address the problems of data monopoly?
Web3 will deliver decentralized and fair internet where users control their own data.
- Currently if a seller has to make a business to the buyer, both the buyer and seller need to be registered on a “shop” or “platform” like Amazon or Ebay or any such e-commerce portal.
- What this “platform” currently does is that it authenticates that the buyer and seller are genuine parties for the transaction.
- Web3 would try to remove the role of the “platform”.
- For the buyer to be authenticated, the usual proofs aided by block chain technology will be used. The same goes for the seller.
How is blockchain technology used here?
- With block chain, the time and place of the transaction are recorded permanently.
- Thus, Web3 enables peer to peer (seller to buyer) transaction by eliminating the role of the intermediary. This concept can be extended to other transactions also.
- Consider a social media application where you want to share pictures with your followers.
- It could be a broadcast operation from you aided by blockchain and you don’t need social media accounts for all the participants to be able to perform this.
Another key feature: Decentralized Autonomous Organization
- The key concepts in Web3 seen so far are peer to peer transaction and block chain.
- The spirit of Web3 is Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO).
- DAO is all about the business rules and governing rules in any transaction are transparently available for anyone to see and software will be written conforming to these rules.
- Crypto-currency and block chain are technologies that follow the DAO principle.
- With DAO, there is no need for a central authority to authenticate or validate.
19) Volcano caused ‘significant damage’
Tsunami in Tonga.
20)The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC)
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is an intergovernmental organisation of six independent member states whose principal function is to mark, record and maintain the graves and places of commemoration of Commonwealth of Nations military service members who died in the two World Wars.
The commission is also responsible for commemorating Commonwealth civilians who died as a result of enemy action during the Second World War.
The commission was founded by Sir Fabian Ware and constituted through Royal Charter in 1917 as the Imperial War Graves Commission.