1) Consider the following statements.
- The Pioneer species are hardy specieswhich are the first to colonize barren environments.
- Lichens are the pioneer species that secrete acids to dissolve rock, helping in weathering and soil formation.
- All ecological succession whether taking place in water or on land, leads to a similar climax community.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
- a) 1, 2
- b) 2, 3
- c) 1, 3
- d) 1, 2, 3
2)Consider the following statements regarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
- CITES is legally binding on state parties to the convention, which are obliged to adopt their own domestic legislation to implement its goals.
- It is administered by IUCN.
- Trade is not permittable for the species covered under Appendix I of CITES.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?
- a) 2 only
- b) 1, 2
- b) 1, 3
- d) 2, 3
3) Bio-ethanol can be derived through the process of bio-refining from
- Rice straw
- Sea weeds
- Water hyacinth
Select the correct answer code:
- a) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
- b) 1, 2, 3
- c) 3, 4, 5
- d) 1, 2, 4, 5
Answers : D D A
Prelims Specific News Items
1) India’s Largest Reclining Statue of Lord Buddha :- The largest reclining statue of Lord Buddha in India is being built in Bodh Gaya, Bihar. India’s Buddhist pilgrimage circuit is being proactively revived and Bodh Gaya is an integral part of it. Hence, the site of Gautam Buddha’s enlightenment will soon be home to his largest reclining statue. This statue is being built by Buddha International Welfare Mission.
Eight Fold Path of Buddha are The steps of the Noble Eightfold Path are Right Understanding, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration.
Triratnas of Buddha comprises the Buddha, the dharma (doctrine, or teaching), and the sangha (the monastic order, or community).
2) Tata Sons’ chief N Chandrasekaran appointed Air India chairman
3) Retail Inflation Vs Whole Sale Inflation
Retail inflation tracked by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures the changes in prices from a retail buyer’s perspective.
Wholesale inflation, which is tracked by the Wholesale Price Index (WPI), measures inflation at the level of producers.
Why in News : Retail inflation climbs to 6.07%
What Does RBI do to Fight Inflation : Tight Money Policy, Hawkish Policy , Increase the Repo Rate , Sell the Gov. Security under OMO.
What Does RBI Do to Increase Growth : Accommodative Policy , Easy Money Policy, Dovish Policy, Reduce the Policy Rate , Buy the Gov. security under OMO.
4. What is Sanskritisation ?
Sanskritisation referred to the lower castes’ adoption of the practices and rites of the locally dominant caste in a particular region, which included Brahmin and non-Brahmin castes, who were politically powerful, socio-economically influential and ritually higher in the local caste hierarchy.
The term sanskritisation was coined by M.N. Srinivas. It may be briefly defined as the process by which a ‘low’ caste or tribe or other group takes over the customs, ritual, beliefs, ideology and style of life of a high and, in particular, a ‘twice-born (dwija) caste’.
The impact of Sanskritisation is many-sided. Its influence can be seen in language, literature, ideology, music, dance, drama, style of life and ritual.
It is primarily a process that takes place within the Hindu space though Srinivas argued that it was visible even in sects and religious groups outside Hinduism.
Srinivas pointed out how in a caste structure with rigid and hereditary placements/ranks, Sanskritisation became a process through which mobility in caste positions/roles became possible for certain castes.
He also warned that the process itself did not always result in higher social status for such castes. Other factors such as economic wellbeing, political power, education, and establishment of literary/historical evidence for their affiliation to/descent from a particular caste/caste lineage were also important for their aspirations for higher social positions, he said.
Most importantly, for the Dalits, Sanskritisation did not guarantee higher social stature and did not lead to improvement in their everyday life, he said. This showed how the caste system continued to be particularly exclusionary for the Dalits, and efforts to raise their social status were opposed and stopped by castes ranked above them.
5. A closer look at the Man-Portable Air-Defence Systems
ManPortable AirDefence Systems are shortrange, lightweight and portable surface to air missiles that can be fired by individuals or small groups to destroy aircraft or helicopters. They help shield troops from aerial attacks and are most effective in targeting lowflying aircrafts. MANPATs or ManPortable Anti-Tank Systems work in a similar manner but are used to destroy or incapacitate military tanks.
MANPADS can be shoulder fired, launched from atop a ground vehicle, fired from a tripod or stand, and from a helicopter or boat. Weighing anywhere between 10 to 20 kilograms and not being longer than 1.8 metres, they are fairly lightweight as compared to other elaborate weapon systems, making them easy to operate by individual soldiers.
Operating MANPADS requires substantially less training. According to U.S.based policy thinktank, the RAND Corporation, MANPADS have a maximum range of 8 kilometres and can engage targets at altitudes of 4.5 km. Most MANPADS have passive or ‘fire and forget’ guidance systems, meaning that the operator is not required to guide the missile to its target, enabling them to run and relocate immediately after firing. The missile stays lockedon to the targeted object, not requiring active guidance from the soldier.
Why in News : United States President Joe Biden approved a $200million arms package for Ukraine, which would include U.S. made Stinger Missiles, which are a type of shoulderfired ManPortable AirDefence Systems (MANPADS). More than 17,000 antitank weapons and 2,000 Stinger missiles have already been sent by the U.S. and NATO.
6. Strategic Petroleum Reserves in India through Map
7. Maternal mortality ratio declines by 10 points: Registrar General
The country has been witnessing a progressive re duction in the MMR from 130 in 2014-16, 122 in 2015-17 and 113 in 2016-18 to 103 in 2017-19.
With this persistent decline, India is on the verge of achieving the National Health Policy (NHP) target of 100 per lakh live births by 2020 and certainly on the track to achieve the Sustain able Development Goal (SDG) target of 70 per lakh live births by 2030.