16 March 2022 Current Affairs UPSC

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Questions

1)Korean Peninsula is located between

  • a) East Sea and South China Sea
  • b) East Sea and Sea of Okhotsk
  • c) Yellow Sea and East China Sea
  • d) Yellow Sea and East Sea

2)Equatorial counter-currents are unique because

  • a) They flow in a direction opposite to that of the surface winds
  • b) They circulate from equator the poles uninterrupted.
  • c) Their travel speed is not affected by the ocean depth.
  • d) They are the only current to be sandwiched between two eastward-flowing ocean currents.

3)Consider the following statements about Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)

1. The ITCZ is a zone of convergence at the thermal equator where the trade winds meet.

2. It is a low pressure belt and migrates with the changing position of the thermal equator.

3. In this zone air tends to descend

4. Around 20th June each year the Sun is overhead at 23½º South, the Tropic of Capricorn.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

  • a) 1, 2
  • b) 3, 4
  • c) 1, 2, 3
  • d) 1, 2, 3, 4

Mains Questions of the Day

Why India and Pakistan needs more dialogue and better Bilateral talking Mechanisms. Explain in the light of Recent missile misfire.

Citizens vs. Foreigners Rights

Fundamental Rights available to both Citizens and Foreigners (except enemy aliens)

  • Article 14 – Equality before the law and equal protection of laws
  • Article 20 – Protection in respect of conviction for offences
  • Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty
  • Article 21A – Right to elementary education
  • Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases
  • Article 23 – Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour
  • Article 24 – Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc
  • Article 25 – Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
  • Article 26 – Freedom to manage religious affairs
  • Article 27 – Freedom from payment of taxes for promotion of any religion
  • Article 28 – Freedom from attending religious instruction or worship in certain educational institutions

Fundamental Rights Available Only to Citizens of India

  • Article 14 – Equality before the law and equal protection of laws
  • Article 20 – Protection in respect of conviction for offences
  • Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty
  • Article 21A – Right to elementary education
  • Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases
  • Article 23 – Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour
  • Article 24 – Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc
  • Article 25 – Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
  • Article 26 – Freedom to manage religious affairs
  • Article 27 – Freedom from payment of taxes for promotion of any religion
  • Article 28 – Freedom from attending religious instruction or worship in certain educational institutions

Fundamental Rights Available Only to Citizens of India

  • Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
  • Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
  • Article 19 – Protection of six rights related to freedom – (a) of speech and expression; (b) to assemble peaceably and without arms; (c) to form associations or unions; (d) to move freely throughout the territory of India; (e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and (f) to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business
  • Article 29 – Protection of language, script and culture of minorities
  • Article 30 – Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions

2) What is Blockchain Gaming?

Many Indian gaming companies have expressed their interest in introducing elements of Blockchain technology into their games in the near future.

What is Blockchain?

  • Blockchain is a decentralised database that stores information.
  • It relies on technology that allows for the storage of identical copies of this information on multiple computers in a network.

What are blockchain games?

  • To revisit our definition of blockchain games: they are online video games that are developed by integrating blockchain technology into them.
  • It can be diversified into the following components-

(1) Non-fungible tokens

  • NFTs represent in-game virtual assets that can be owned by players, such as maps, armour or land.
  • These NFTs act as asset tags, identifying ownership of the in-game assets, and are stored on the blockchain.
  • Being on the blockchain allows the player to have a secure record of ownership of the in-game assets and also gives the assets the ability to outlive the game itself.
  • Based on the manner in which the games are designed, it also allows for the in-game assets to be transferred from one game to another.
  • It also creates transparency, since ownership records can independently be verified by any third party as well.
  • In doing so, it makes in-game assets marketable and creates a decentralized market, where they can be bought and sold by people.

(2) Cryptocurrency

  • Cryptocurrency, such as tokens based on the Ethereum blockchain, may be used for the purchase of in-game assets.
  • These in-game purchases usually enable gamers to buy items like extra lives, coins and so on directly from the game.

(3) Gaming coins

  • Gaming coins, such as Axie Infinity (ACS) and Enjin Coin (ENJ), are in-game cryptocurrency which may be acquired and then used for the purchase of in-game assets.
  • These gaming coins may be purchased from crypto exchanges (and eventually be traded on these crypto exchanges as well) or, in certain cases, be acquired as winnings in games that have adopted the ‘play-to-earn’ model.
  • In such games, gamers are rewarded for dedicating their time and skill to play the game with gaming coins and in-game assets.

Need to regulate such games

  • By making in-game assets available for purchase, developers and publishers stand to earn revenue from the sale of such assets.
  • They may also embed certain rules when implementing the code for in-game assets such that a fee is paid to them every time a certain action is taken,
  • It also involves transfers of assets from one player to another.
  • It needs to be ensured that if it is permissible to offer such games in the Indian Territory and also offers protection in the form of intellectual property rights.
  • Other concerns, such as privacy and cyber security, along with how financial regulations would apply to blockchain games, would also need to be addressed.

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