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Indian Express Explained 22nd April 2020

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1)Explained: What is Article 142, invoked by SC

Article 142(1) states that “The Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it, and any decree so passed or order so made shall be enforceable throughout the territory of India in such manner as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, in such manner as the President may by order prescribe”.

Recent instances :-

1. Babri Masjid Case land transfer for mosque:- This was the first time that the court invoked this power in a case involving a civil dispute over an immovable property, involving private parties

2. Disqualification of MLA T.shyamkumar singh from Manipur Assembly in Anti-Defection Law.

2)Explained: What is the significance of Earth Day 2020?

Earth Day 2020: Today (April 22) is Earth Day, an international event celebrated around the world to pledge support for environmental protection.

The year 2020 marks the 50th anniversary of the annual celebrations. This year’s theme for Earth Day is ‘climate action’.

Earth Day 2020: Today (April 22) is Earth Day, an international event celebrated around the world to pledge support for environmental protection. The year 2020 marks the 50th anniversary of the annual celebrations. This year’s theme for Earth Day is ‘climate action’.

In 2009, the United Nations designated April 22 as ‘International Mother Earth Day’.

Remember that 22nd March is World Water Day

22nd May is World Biodiversity Day

And 5th June is Environment Day.

Earth Day was first observed in 1970, when 20 million took to the streets to protest against environmental degradation. The event was triggered by the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill, as well as other issues such as smog and polluted rivers.

For the next 50 years, Earth Day has played an important role in environmental activism.

3) In WTI oil prices Fell below 0 i.e in negative.

How will this impact India?

The Indian crude oil basket does not comprise WTI — it only has Brent and oil from some of the Gulf countries — so there is no direct impact. But oil is traded globally and weakness in WTI is mirrored in the falling prices of the Indian basket as well .

There are two ways in which this lower price can help India. If the government passes on the lower prices to consumers, then, whenever the economic recovery starts in India, individual consumption will be boosted.

If, on the other hand, governments (both at the Centre and the states) decide to levy higher taxes on oil, it can boost government revenues.

What is the future of oil prices?

It is important to note that it was the WTI price for May in the US markets that went so low. Crude oil prices elsewhere fell, too, but by not so much. Moreover, at least for now, oil prices for June and the coming months are pegged between $20 and $35 a barrel.

4)Unorganised Worker

The term ‘unorganized worker’ is defined in India under Section 2(m) of the Unorganized Workers Social Security Act, 2008.

An unorganised worker is a home-based worker or a self-employed worker or a wage worker in the unorganized sector and includes a worker in the organized sector who is not covered by any of the Acts pertaining to welfare Schemes as mentioned in Schedule-II of Unorganized Workers Social Security Act, 2008.

Here,

  • home based worker refers to one who engages in production at his own home or at premises of his choice but not at the employer’s work place, even if the employer might have provided him materials or equipments for his work.
  • Self-employed worker refers to one who is not working for an employer and is engaged in an unorgnised sector job earning an income below a threshold or owning land below a notified limit.
  • wage worker is a person employed for a remuneration (in cash or kind) in the unorganised sector, by an employer or contractor for one or more employers, as a casual worker, or temporary worker, or migrant worker, or as domestic workers but on wage below a notified limit.
  • unorganised sector refers to a production or service oriented enterprise owned by individuals or self employed workers and if workers are employed, then the total number of workers cannot exceed 10.

Thus, unorganised workers are essentially those who do not have the benefit of pension, provident fund, gratuity, maternity leave etc. and work mostly on daily / hourly wages. They are not represented by active trade unions.

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