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Consider the following: (2022)

  1. Aarogya Setu
  2. COWIN
  3. Digi Locker

Which of the above are built on top of open-source digital platforms?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2, 3, and 4 only
  3. 1, 3, and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Consider the following countries: (2023)

  1. Bulgaria
  2. Czech Republic
  3. Hungary
  4. Latvia
  5. Lithuania
  6. Romania

How many of the above-mentioned countries share a land border with Ukraine?

  1. Only two
  2. Only three
  3. Only four
  4. Only five

 The term “Levant” often heard in the news roughly corresponds to which of the following regions? (2022)

  1. Region along the eastern Mediterranean shores
  2. The region along North African shores stretches from Egypt to Morocco
  3. The region along the Persian Gulf and Horn of Africa
  4. The entire coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea

 Consider the following statements: (2023)

  1. The Government of India provides Minimum Support Price for niger( Guizotia aoyssinica) seeds.
  2. Niger is cultivated as a Kharif crop.
  3. Some tribal people in India use niger seed oil for cooking.

How many of the above statements are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Justice Gita Mittal Committee :-

Supreme Court panel flags reconstruction of lost essential documents of victims as the first healing step in Manipur.

The Committee

2. Malabar Exercise

The 27th edition of Exercise MALABAR concluded on the East Coast of Australia off Sydney.

The Exercise


3. Blue Bonds

In News


About Blue bonds

Gabon’s Deal:-

In May 2023, the world’s first and largest debt swap to conserve oceans was signed by Ecuador, which had exchanged $1.6 billion denominated bonds for a new $656 million loan.

Namoh 108

Science Minister unveiled a variety of lotus called ‘Namoh 108’.

Global Initiative on Digital Health (GIDH)

India and the WHO will launch the Global Initiative on Digital Health.

The Global Initiative on Digital Health to be launched under India’s G20 Presidency, will support the WHO Strategy on Digital Health.

Oort Cloud :

The Oort Cloud is the most distant region of our solar system. Even the nearest objects in the Oort Cloud are thought to be many times farther from the Sun than the outer reaches of the Kuiper Belt.

Unlike the orbits of the planets and the Kuiper Belt, which lie mostly in the same flat disk around the Sun, the Oort Cloud is believed to be a giant spherical shell surrounding the rest of the solar system. It is like a big, thick-walled bubble made of icy pieces of space debris the sizes of mountains and sometimes larger. The Oort Cloud might contain billions, or even trillions, of objects.

UDGAM Portal

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) unveils UDGAM portal for search of unclaimed deposits.

Traditional Medicine Global Summit

The First WHO Traditional Medicine Global Summit held between 17 and 18 August 2023 in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.


Context: Recently, doctors have urged people to stay vigilant against COVID-19 variant EG.5.1.


About COVID-19 variant EG.5.1.:-

Karnail Singh Isru

Context: Recently, Punjab Chief Minister Bhagwant Mann paid his tributes to the late activist Karnail Singh Isru.

About Karnail Singh Isru:-

Political Career:-


Consider the following freedom fighters: (2022)

  1. Barindra Kumar Ghosh
  2. Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee
  3. Rash Behari Bose

Who of the above was/were actively associated with the Ghadar Party?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 3 only

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Context: Recently the suggestion of counting the condition of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as a rare disease was put forth by support groups.


About Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis:-

What are Acoustic Side Channel Attacks:

What is the News?

A research paper titled “A Practical Deep Learning-Based Acoustic Side Channel Attack on Keyboards” has shown how accurate Acoustic Side Channel Attacks (ASCA) can be when advanced deep learning models are used to recognize laptop keystrokes.

What are Side Channel Attacks(SCA’s)?

Side Channel Attacks(SCAs) are a method of hacking a cryptographic algorithm based on the analysis of auxiliary systems used in the encryption method.

These can be performed using a collection of signals emitted by devices including electromagnetic waves, power consumption, mobile sensors as well as sound from keyboards and printers to target devices. 

Once collected, these signals are used to interpret signals that can be then used to compromise the security of a device.

What are Acoustic Side Channel Attacks(ASCA)?

Acoustic Side Channel Attacks(ASCA) uses the sound of clicks generated by a keyboard to analyze keystrokes and interpret what is being typed to leak sensitive information. 

These attacks are particularly dangerous as the acoustic sounds from a keyboard are not only readily available but also because their misuse is underestimated by users.

The use of laptops has increased the scope of ASCAs as laptop models have the same keyboard making it easier for AI-enabled deep learning models to pick up and interpret the acoustics.

Hangul :-

What is the News?

Hangul, the unique Kashmir stag and the state animal of Jammu and Kashmir has experienced a slight increase in its population after a period of two years.

What is Hangul?

Hangul is the state animal of Jammu & Kashmir. It is subspecies of Central Asian red deer endemic to Kashmir and surrounding areas.

The last viable population of Hangul in the Indian sub-continent exists only in the protected Dachigam National Park, a vast mountainous 141 sq km sanctuary on the outskirts of Srinagar.

IUCN Status: Critically Endangered

Indian Wildlife Protection Act: Schedule I

Census: A population census of Hangul species is conducted every two years.

Threats: Habitat fragmentation and poaching, livestock grazing, predation, ecological threats and disturbed corridors and landscapes.

Gondia, Gadchiroli to host Maha’s 1st elephant reserve

What is the News?

The Maharashtra state wildlife department has proposed creating the Navegaon Elephant Reserve in an area in Gondia and Gadchiroli districts.

This move aims to conserve wild elephants in the region, where around 23-25 elephants have been residing.

What is the significance of this proposal?

At present, there are 33 elephant reserves in the country. If approved, Navegaon Elephant Reserve  could become the 34th elephant reserve in India and the 5th largest in terms of area.

Elephant Conservation in India:

Elephant has been recognised as a national heritage animal of India.

India has the largest population of Asian elephants with nearly 30,000 wild and about 3,600 captive ones.

Government of India had launched Project Elephant in 1991-92. The project was intended to provide financial and technical support to the elephant range states for the protection of elephants, their habitats, and corridors and address the issue of human-animal conflict. It also sought to promote the welfare of captive elephants.

IUCN Red List: Endangered 

CITES: Appendix I

Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule I

Concerns: According to the Wildlife (Protection) Act (WLPA) 1972, a ‘protected area’ can be one of a ‘national park’, a ‘wildlife sanctuary’, a ‘conservation reserve’ or a ‘community reserve’.

– Hence, in the eyes of the law, an elephant reserve is no different from forest land or revenue land. 

– The activities that are prohibited in protected areas – including mining, oil- and gas-drilling, dams, etc. – are permissible in an elephant reserve.


What are some facts about basic structure?

The Kesavananda Bharati judgment was delivered by a 13-member constitutional bench in 1973. It introduced the concept of “basic structure”.

The bench said that there are some things in the Constitution that even Parliament cannot change.

What are issues with the basic structure?

Lack of clarity– There is a question regarding the extent to which SC can interpret the concept of the “basic structure.” The judiciary has not yet provided clear guidance on this matter.

Varying perspectives among judges– As per Ranjan Gogoi, the concept of the basic structure is subject to debate.

The current Chief Justice had expressed that the basic structure serves as the “North Star” guiding jurisprudence.

 Historical perspective– When the Kesavananda verdict was delivered in April 1973, it carried a narrow majority of 7-6. The panel of 13 judges produced a total of 11 separate opinions.

The consensus was shaped by the then Chief Justice, SM Sikri. He presented a six-point “majority view” in open court. However, four of the judges declined to do so.

The second proposition stated that “Article 368 does not empower Parliament to modify the fundamental structure or framework of the Constitution.”

The concept of the basic structure did not organically arise from this judgment. Its frequent use to justify judicial interventions is questionable unless the entire idea is thoroughly examined by another constitutional bench.

Political backdrop– Indira Gandhi held considerable power. She wants amendments that would enhance the authority of the executive in pursuing its social agenda.

The judiciary was divided between progressive and conservative factions, and some believed that curbing executive power was imperative.

Extraordinary circumstances can lead to flawed laws. The notion of the basic structure was a product of its era. It warrants a reevaluation and clarification in the context of our times.

Other issues– Certain common-sense “basic” features have been disregarded by the judiciary. A fundamental aspect of the Constitution should involve checks and balances.

There are questions regarding the Supreme Court having authority to exclusively appoint all judges to the higher judiciary.

A dissenting judge in the NJAC case, Justice J Chelameswar, argued that the independence of the judiciary isn’t compromised simply because the Chief Justice isn’t the primary influencer in judicial appointments.

There is assumption that the concept of the basic structure was derived from the thoughts of the constituent assembly that drafted the Constitution.

However, the chapter on fundamental duties was not part of the original Constitution. This was added in 1976 as Article 51A.

A provision introduced a quarter century after the initial Constitution was classified as an element of the basic structure.

“What are the concerns about drilling in the North Sea?”

News: The U.K. Prime Minister Rishi Sunak approved new offshore fossil fuel drilling in the North Sea, despite environmental concerns and the global push against climate change, raising questions about the U.K.’s commitment to climate change targets.

What are the concerns about drilling in the North Sea?

Environmental Impact: Drilling in the North Sea intensifies the global threat of climate change. Activities associated with such drilling can lead to the warming of oceans, which, in turn, contributes to rising sea levels.

Risk to Marine Life: Offshore drilling has direct detrimental effects on marine biodiversity. Coral reefs, shellfish, and broader marine ecosystems are also at risk due to the increased acidity in the waters. This acidic condition arises when carbon pollution from drilling activities settles into the oceans.

Climate Commitments: The Climate Change Committee(CCC), in its 2023 report, highlighted that the U.K. is not adequately prepared for the implications of climate change. This report was based on evaluations from the Second National Adaptation Programme, spanning from 2018-2023, which showed a significant lack of preparation in climate adaptation.

Global Agreements: The CCC report shows the U.K. lacks adequate climate risk preparation. The Climate Action Tracker claims the U.K. isn’t meeting Paris Agreement standards, and new drilling plans exceed the recommended 1.5°C temperature rise limit.

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