22 September 2023 The Hindu Newspaper Analysis

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Prelims Specific Questions

Consider the following statements regarding particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTGs):

  1. On the recommendation of Xaxa
    Committee, the government identified
    the most vulnerable groups as PVTGs.
  2. The criteria for identification of PVTGs include a declining or stagnant population and pre-agriculture level of
  3. Kathodi, Jarawas, and Koraga are
    examples of PVTGs.
    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    (a) 1 only
    (b) 2 and 3 only
    (c) 1 and 3 only
    (d) 1, 2, and 3

Examples of PVTGs include: Cholanaikayan (Kerala), Kathodi (Gujarat), Jarawas (Andaman & Nicobar Islands), Koraga (Karnataka).

However, they are identified Government of India by following the below-mentioned criteria for PVTG :-
o Pre-agricultural level of technology
o Low level of literacy
o Economic backwardness
o A declining or stagnant population.

With reference to the history of India, the terms “khud-kashta” and “pahi-kashta” were used for
(a) warriors
(b) traders

(c) weavers

(d) peasants

Which of the following statements correctly defines the term “Sealed Cover Jurisprudence”?

a. It is a practice used by the Supreme Court and High Courts for conveying their judgments on cases involving terrorists in sealed envelopes to ensure National Security.

b. It is a practice used by the Supreme Court and High Courts, for asking information from strategic agencies from abroad including the FBI, CIA, Mossad, and others.

c. It is a practice used by the Supreme Court and sometimes lower courts for asking for information from government agencies in sealed envelopes that can only be accessed by judges.

d. It is a practice used by the Supreme Court for delivering judgements in sealed envelopes in cases where judges themselves are involved.

Prelims Specific News Items

1. Fugitive Economic Offenders

India’s Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018

  • India has put in place specialized legislation in the form of the Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018.
  • Definition of FEO:
    • The ‘fugitive economic offender’ (FEO) is defined as an individual against whom a warrant of arrest in relation to scheduled offence has been issued by any court in India and who has left the country so as to avoid criminal prosecution; or the FEO abroad, refuses to return to face criminal prosecution. 
  • Aim:
    • The Act aims to help confiscate assets of high-value economic offenders absconding from India till they submit to the jurisdiction of the appropriate legal forum.
  • Procedure to be followed: 
    • The investigating agencies have to file an application in a Special Court under the Prevention of Money-Laundering Actcontaining details of the properties to be confiscated, and any information about the person’s whereabouts.
    • The Special Court will issue a notice for the person to appear at a specified place and date at least six weeks from the issue of notice.
      • If the person appears:
        • Proceedings will be terminated if the person appears
      • If the person does not appear:
        • If not the person would be declared as a Fugitive Economic Offender based on the evidence filed by the investigating agencies.
    • The person who is declared as a Fugitive Economic Offender can challenge the proclamation in the High Court within 30 days of such declaration according to the Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018.
  • Role of Enforcement Directorate:
    • The Enforcement Directorate is mandated to attach the properties of the fugitive economic offenders who have escaped from India warranting arrest and provide for the confiscation of their properties to the Central Government.

2. GDP Deflator

Real vs Nominal GDP

Base effect:-

The base effect is the effect that choosing a different reference point for a comparison between two data points can have on the result of the comparison.

Because the base number makes up the denominator in the comparison, comparisons using different base values can yield widely varying results.

What Is the Base Effect in an Economy?

The base effect in an economy is commonly used to understand inflation. If inflation is compared on a monthly or yearly basis, the information can become distorted, so choosing a base point, or base year, that is a point earlier in time, can help smooth the changes in inflation.

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