24 August 2021 The Hindu News Analysis

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Questions

A Parliamentary System of Government is one in which

 A)All political parties in the Parliament are represented in the Government

B) The Government is responsible to the Parliament and can be removed by it

C)The Government is elected by the people and can be removed by them

D) The Government is chosen by the Parliament but cannot be removed by it before completion of a fixed term.

2)Consider the following statements:

1. The Constitution of India defines its ‘Basic structure’ in terms of federalism, secularism, fundamental rights and democracy

2. The Constitution of India provides for ‘judicial review’ to safeguard the citizens’ liberties and to preserve the ideals on which the Constitution is based

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

 1 only

 2 only

 Both 1 and 2

 Neither 1 nor 2

3)The Preamble to the Constitution of India is

A)a part of the Constitution but has no legal effect

B) not a part of the Constitution and has no legal effect either

C) a part of the Constitution and has the same legal effect as any other part

D) a part of the Constitution but has no legal effect independently of other parts

Prelims Specific News Items

Simhadri PV Project: Largest floating Solar Project in the country :- The National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) has commissioned the largest floating solar PV project of 25MW on the reservoir of its Simhadri thermal station in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.

Simhadri PV Project:- 

The 2000MW coal-based Simhadri Station is the first power project to implement an open sea intake from the Bay of Bengal which has been functional for more than 20 years.

This is the first solar project to be set up under the flexibilization scheme of coal-powered plant, notified in 2018.

The floating solar installation which has a unique anchoring design is spread over 75 acres in an RW reservoir.

This floating solar project has the potential to generate electricity from more than 1 lakh solar PV modules.

NTPC:- 

NTPC is an Indian statutory corporation engaged in the generation of electricity and allied activities.

It is incorporated under the Companies Act 1956 and is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Power.

NTPC’s core function is the generation and distribution of electricity to State Electricity Boards in India.

It is the largest power company in India with an electric power generating capacity of 62,086 MW.

It has also ventured into oil and gas exploration and coal mining activities.

2)The Taliban has sent hundreds of its fighters to the Panjshir Valley, one of the few parts of Afghanistan not yet controlled by the group.

Panjshir Valley:- 

Located 150 km north of Kabul, the Valley is near the Hindu Kush Mountain range.

It’s divided by the Panjshir river and ringed by the Panjshir mountains in the north and the Kuhestan mountains in the south.

The mountain tops are covered by snow throughout the year.

This difficult terrain makes the Valley a nightmare for invaders.

The Valley has repeatedly played a decisive role in Afghanistan’s military history, as its geographical position almost completely closes it off from the rest of the country.

The only access point to the region is through a narrow passage created by the Panjshir River, which can be easily defended militarily.

Practice Location Question:-

Towns: Country in news        

Aleppo: Syria

Kirkuk: Yemen

Mosul: Palestine

Mazar-i-sharif: Afghanistan

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched? (CSP 2018)

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 1 and 4

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 3 and 4

3) Caste Census Demand and why is it a tough demand to fulfil :-

The demands for a caste-based census from NDA allies Janata Dal (United) and Apna Dal, apart from regional parties, have grown following the passage of the Constitution 127A Amendment Bill, 2021, which restores the power of states to identify Other Backward Classes that are socially and economically backward.

While India’s census, which happens every 10 years, has always recorded the population of Dalits and Adivasis, it has never counted OBCs.

Now, several political parties, including BJP’s allies, are demanding a caste census – essentially a count of OBCs. However, the government has refused.

The British used to do the same thing, it happened in 1931 and then in 2011 but it was not published.

Why caste-based census will be a Herculean task?

Till date, there is no clarity over the population of OBCs in the population. The Mandal Commission had estimated the figure to be 52 per cent, school enrolment data suggests it to be 45 per cent, while the NSSO survey of 2007 puts the number at 41 per cent. This increases the chances of possible errors in the upcoming census as well which could lead to a 2011-like case. 

Secondly, several communities such as Jats in Haryana, Patels in Gujarat and Marathas in Maharashtra have been demanding inclusion under the OBC category. It is possible that a caste-based census might result in these and many other communities making a beeline for inclusion in the list.

4) Russian stealth frigates to come in 2023 :- The first of two additional Krivak class stealth frigates being built by Russia is expected to be delivered to India in the middle of 2023.

5) Plan to deport 60,000 Chakmas from Arunachal slammed :- Chakma organisations have slammed the proposed deportation of 60,000 people belonging to the Chakma and Hajong communities from Arunachal Pradesh.

They said other States in India, specifically Assam, must not be the dumping ground of “unwanted people of the Northeast” although 94% of the Chakmas and Hajongs settled in present day Arunachal Pradesh by the Government of India in the 1960s are Indians by birth.

6) Bhima Koregaon: NIA files draft charges :- According to the NIA, “All accused are members of the banned terrorist organisation whose main object is to establish ‘Janata Sarkar’ i.e people’s government via revolution supported by a commitment to protracted armed struggle to undermine and to seize power from the State.”

What is Bhima-Koregaon:-
A small village in Pune district of Maharashtra, Bhima-Koregaon is associated with an important phase of Maratha history. On January 1, 1818, a Dalit-dominated British Army had defeated a Peshwa army, led by Peshwa Bajirao II, in Koregaon.

The battle attained a legendary stature for Dalits, who consider the win as a victory of the Mahars against the injustices perpetuated by the Peshwas.

A pillar, known as Vijay Sthamb (victory pillar), was installed by the East India Company in memory of those who fought for them in the battle. It is at this pillar that thousands of Dalits come to pay respect every year on January 1.

7) Plea against construction in Corbett Tiger Reserve :- The Delhi High Court on Monday asked the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) to consider as representation a petition to stop the alleged illegal construction of bridges and walls within tiger breeding habitat of the Corbett Tiger Reserve.

Read about NTCA in Detail from here

8) All about OALP :

Open Acreage Licensing Policy (OALP) gives an option to a company looking for exploring hydrocarbons to select the exploration blocks on its own, without waiting for the formal bid round from the Government. 

Under Open Acreage Licensing Policy (OALP), a bidder intending to explore hydrocarbons like oil and gas, coal bed methane, gas hydrate etc., may apply to the Government seeking exploration of any new block (not already covered by exploration).  

The Government will examine the Expression of Interest and justification. If it is suitable for award, Govt. will call for competitive bids after obtaining necessary environmental and other clearances. 

READ ABOUT COMPETITION COMMISSION OF INDIA FROM

Editorial of the Day

  1. Tauktae, Yaas and planning for the next

In this editorial the author mentions about the loss that occurs due to cyclones and what should be done in order to minimise the losses and mitigate the risk.

What are the Various Losses involved :-

  1. Economic losses :- economic losses stood at ₹320 billion (U.S.$4.3 billion).
  2. In addition, crop area of 0.24 million hectares was affected, and
  3. around 0.45 million houses were damaged.
  4. Moreover, 2.5 million people were evacuated to cyclone shelters and relief camps in these two States.
  5. Government of India reports are that, put together, an estimated 199 people died, 37 million people were affected
  6. As stated earlier, cyclones also led to an increase in the fiscal burden of governments through increased spending to implement effective cyclone preparation measures.

So overall we can say that Loss to life, property, infrastructure, agriculture, fisheries , infrastructure occurs because of the cyclones.

Recent Trends in Cyclones :-

  1. More Frequent:-Cyclones have become more frequent due to increase in the temperature of the sea surface.
  2. Cyclones are the second most expensive in terms of the costs incurred in damage, accounting for 29% of the total disaster related damages after floods (62%).
  3. In addition, they are the third most lethal disaster in India after earthquakes (42%) and floods (33%).

What Can be done :-

  1. Odisha can be followed as a case study.
  2. better cyclone early warning system can be installed
  3. Cyclone resilient infrastructure needs to be installed
  4. Cyclone Resilient Power infrastructure needs to be installed
  5. better coordination among states and other important bodies and ministries involved in the disaster mitigation
  6. Building cyclone-resilient infrastructure such as constructing storm surge resilient embankments, canals and improving river connectivity to prevent water-logging in low lying areas are important.

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