27 Sep, 2022 Daily Current Affairs – THE EXAMS MADE SIMPLE

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Prelims Practices Questions

1) Consider the following statements with respect to Pakke Tiger Reserve :
1. It is present in Arunachal Pradesh.
2. It lies in the Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot.
3. River Kameng flows to the east of this reserve.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
A.) 1 and 2 only
B.) 2 and 3 only
C.) 1 and 3 only
D) 1, 2 and 3

2) Which of the following countries are not part of Asian Palm Oil Alliance (APOA)?
1. India
2. Pakistan
3. China
4. Bangladesh
5. Bhutan
Select the correct answer from the codes given below
A.) 2 and 3 only
B.) 1, 2 and 4 only
C.) 3 and 5 only
D.) 2 and 5 only
##. Edible oil trade associations from five palm oil importing countries in South Asia – India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal announced the setting up of Asian Palm Oil Alliance (APOA).

3) Operation Megh-Chakra, was seen in news, is related to which of the following?
A.) An action against drug trafficking in India.
B.) A drive against the circulation and sharing of Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM).
C.) An operation of Railway to protect women travelers in train.
D.) An operation of the army in the North East under AFSPA.

Prelims Specific Facts

1) What is the News?
  • Italy for talks to create the country’s first far right led government since the Second World War with Giorgia Meloni at the helm as Italy’s first woman Premier.
2) What is the News?
  • Rupee drops to a record low of 81.67 against dollar owing to further strengthening of the U.S. currency against other major currencies.
  • The rupee’s continuing slid will adversely impact importers, students studying abroad and outbound travellers. The Indian currency fell for the fourth consecutive session, closing at 81.67 compared with 81.09.
3. Centre’s push for NavIC system lands smartphone gaints on unknown road
  • The Union government is pushing tech giants to make smartphones compatible with its home grown navigation system within months, worrying the likes of Samsung, Xiaomi and Apple who fear elevated costs and disruptions as the move requires hardware changes, according to two industry sources and government documents seen by Reuters.
  • India has over the years expanded the use of its regional navigation satellite system called NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation).
  • U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS), and says NavIC provides more accurate domestic navigation and that its use would benefit he economy.
  • Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC), also called the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), is considered on par with US-based GPS, Russia’s Glonass and Galileo developed by Europe.
  • Making innovative applications to the entire community in the ocean-based services, especially for the underserved and unserved, the NavIC constellation is really going to create history, according to ISRO Chairman K Sivan.
  • By using receivers on the ground, IRNSS-1I will help in determining position and time accurately through signals in a space covering India.
  • Designed to provide accurate position information service to users in India as well as the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary, NavIC, can be a part of Garmin’s handheld devices GPSMAP 66sr and GPSMAP 65s.

4) What is the News?

  • The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
  • UNWTO’s membership includes 160 Member States, 6 Associate Members and over 500 Affiliate Members representing the private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations and local tourism authorities.
  • Its headquarters are in Madrid, Spain.
  • Formation
    • 1 November 1975 (46 years ago)
  • World Tourism Day 2022 :
    • Theme:-The theme for World Tourism Day 2022 is ‘Rethinking Tourism.’ The focus will be on reviewing the growth and increase of the tourism sector, rethinking and redeveloping tourism after the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • World Tourism Day 2022: Host country
    • The host country of World Tourism Day 2022 is Indonesia, which is known for its exceptional hospitality services. Tourism in Indonesia is considered to be one of the key sources of income. The theme, ‘Rethinking Tourism’, revolves around a central theme to ensure consistent communication across global countries.
5.) OBCs not on Central list can apply under EWS for Union government posts: DoPT
  • People belonging to Other Backward Classes (OBC) communities in the State list but not in the Central list will be eligible to apply for posts and services of the Government of India under the EWS quota criteria, provided they fulfill all other requirements, the Department of Personnel and Training (DOPT) has said in a list of FAQS it has put out on how to recruit under the 10% reservation provided for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS).
  • The DoPT said the SC/ST members will not be eligible to apply for Central government posts.
6.) What is the News ?
  • Chief Justice of India U.U. Lalit on Monday assured a litigant that a dedicated platform is being planned to livestream Supreme Court proceedings.
  • The move towards transparency can be traced over the past seven years. It, however, started with a big negative in 2015. The court struck down the National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) Act and the 99th Constitution al Amendment in 2015.
7.) What is the News ?
  • Putin grants Snowden Russian citizenship
    • President Vladimir Putin on Monday granted Russian citizenship to U.S. whistleblower Edward Snowden, who exposed massive surveillance by the National Security Agency and was granted refuge by Moscow.
8.) What is the News ?
  • Cuba grants nod to same-sex marriage in unusual referendum
    • Cubans have approved a sweeping “family law” code that would allow same-sex couples to marry and adopt as well as redefining rights for children and grandparents, officials said on Monday, though opposition in the national referendum was unusually strong on the Communist Party-governed island.

Editorial of the Day

Home and abroad
  • If India is to unite polarised nations, it must bring divisive forces under control External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar spoke of several challenges in India’s past, present and future, with a special emphasis on the immediate “shocks” arising from the war in Ukraine, the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, and terrorism.
  • Mr. Jaishankar expanded on Mr. Modi’s theme with out seeming to either criticise Russia or condone its actions: instead, he said, India stands on the side of peace, of respect for the UN charter, dialogue and diplomacy, and with all those now grappling with the “escalating costs of food, of fuel and fertilizers”.
  • Above all, Mr. Jaishankar hailed what he called the “New India” under Mr. Modi, spelling out five pledges made at the 75th Independence day anniversary, which includes making India a developed nation by 2047. He added that India is ready to take on enhanced responsibility at the global body, and called for a reformed UN with an expanded Security Council, as a means at righting the “injustice” done to the global south. The year ahead, where India will host the G-20 summit, will, no doubt, test the will and the ability of the Modi government to play the role of global uniter, and what Mr. Jaishankar called a “bridge” between nations polarised by bitter divides. It is a goal which will only be achievable if New Delhi is able to play a similarly uniting role in its own neighbourhood, and bring polarising and divisive forces within India under control.
  • Earlier this month, the Dhauladhar ranges in the Himalayas were the setting for a gathering of State Tourism Ministers – a first-of-its-kind meeting to discuss, debate and deliberate on modes and mechanisms to develop tourism in India.
  • The Ministers brainstormed for three days, co-developing “The Dharamshala Declaration’ by drawing inspiration from Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s ‘Whole of Government’ approach, which enables the breaking down of silos and encouraging synergies across various government corridors.
  • On the occasion of World Tourism Day (it is held on September 27), I am happy to share this collective vision. “The Dharamshala Declaration’ aims to recognise India’s role in contributing towards global tourism as well as focusing on recovery by also promoting domestic tourism – which has been overlooked for long.
  • In the declaration, the Tourism Ministry has come up with a strategy and action plan to encourage more Indians to travel domestically and explore India’s natural, cultural, and spiritual beauty while simultaneously reaching the goal of an ‘Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat’ (interaction and mutual understanding). In parallel, the Ministry has also been working with the Ministry of External Affairs to identify 20 Indian missions abroad with the highest tourist footfalls to India and build country-specific strategies to attract foreign tourists.
  • Tourism has been one of the sectors severely affected by COVID19. The guiding principles include promoting sustainable, responsible and inclusive tourism in line with our civilisational ethos. The National Green Tourism Mission aims at institutionalising this approach.
  • The National Tourism policy also aims to give impetus to digitalisation, innovation and technology through the National Digital Tourism Mission and skilling through the Tourism and Hospitality Sector Skill Mission.
  • The Ministry of Tourism also plans to work with other Ministries to bring in necessary interventions such as visa reforms, ease of travel, traveller-friendly and improved immigration facilities at airports.
  • The Ministry is committed to delivering on these goals to ensure the positioning of India as one of the world’s best tourism destinations by 2047. World Tourism Day, therefore, is an appropriate day to renew this pledge.

Explainer of the Day

A push for the semiconductor industry

  • In a bid to make India’s $10 billion chip making initiative more attractive to investors, the Centre on September 21, approved changes to the scheme for the development of a semiconductor and display manufacturing ecosystem.
  • How big is the industry?
    • Semiconductors are the thumbnail-sized building blocks of almost every modern electronic device from smartphones to connected devices in the Internet of Things (IoT). They help give computational power to devices. The global semiconductor industry is currently valued at $500-$600 billion.
  • The basic component of a semiconductor chip is a sliver of silicon, which is etched with billions of microscopic transistors, forming patterns to control the flow of cur rent while following different computation al instructions.
  • The chip-making industry is a highly-concentrated one, with the big players being Taiwan, South Korea and the U.S. among others. In fact, according to a New York Times estimate, 90% of 5nm (nanometre) chips are mass-produced in Taiwan, by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC). There fore, the global chip shortage, U.S.-China tensions over Taiwan, and the supply chain blockages owing to the Russia-Ukraine conflict have led major economies to enter the chip-making sector with a renewed push. For example, the U.S. announcement of $52.7 billion in government funding for the CHIPS and Science Act and the EU’s Chips Act that will mobilise €43 billion for public.
  • In December 2021, India announced its roughly $10 billion dollar production linked incentive (PLI) scheme to encourage semiconductor and display manufacturing in the country. It also announced fiscal sup port for a design-linked initiative (DLI) scheme to drive global and domestic investment related to design software, IP rights etc.
  • So far, Vedanta and Taiwanese chipmaker Foxconn have signed an MoU to set up a *1,54,000 crore semiconductor plant in Gujarat. Two other projects have also been announced – a $3 billion plant in Karnataka by the International consortium ISMC and a $3.5 billion plant in Tamil Nadu by Singapore’s IGSS Ventures. The modified scheme also emphasised the production of the 45nm chip, which is fairly less time-consuming and economical in terms of production.
  • While the new scheme provides equal funding for all steps of the process, the outlay of the scheme remains $10 billion. Notably, just the setting up of one semiconductor fab requires an investment of anywhere between $3 and $7 billion. Analysts, while positive, are concerned that not much of the current scheme outlay would be left to support other elements including display fabs, packaging and testing facilities, and chip design centres. They also argue that the initial funding should focus on areas like design and R&D, for which India already has an established talent pool.
  • Chip-making also requires gallons of ul trapure water in a single day, which experts say, could be a task for the government to provide to factories, compounded also by the drought conditions which often prevail in large parts of the country.

Landslides in Pettimudi: social inequalities in disasters

  • A Case Study of Pettimudi Landslide in Kerala’, draws attention to the role of space during natural calamities such as landslides, in terms of the disaster vulnerability of a community and State interventions. The authors through the study of a landslide that hit Pettimudi, a tea plantation estate in the Idukki district of Kerala, discuss the ‘geographical and sociological space’ in which the incident occurred and how the State’s approach towards the incident was influenced by the social position and historical vulnerability of the community living in the landslide-prone region.

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