The Hindu Newspaper 27th April 2020

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1)Arrange the following from north to south

  1. Nathu La Pass
  2. Shipki La Pass
  3. Lipulekh Pass

Select the correct answer code:

2)Consider the following hills and their locations.

  1. Shevaroy Hills: Eastern Ghats
  2. Baba Budangiri Hills: Balaghat Range
  3. Cardamom Hills: Western Ghats

Select the correct answer code:


3)Which of the following is not a valid argument for advocating ‘free trade’ for a developing economy?

Map of the Day :- CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States.




12 States — Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan



Industries hobbled by curbs on mobility of men, material:- Almost half of the industries which have been allowed to reopen still face hurdles in obtaining permits to function and passes for employees, according to a Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) survey.

Over 60% of surveyed companies also said movement of inputs and finished goods isstill disrupted. The industry group demanded that businesses should be allowed to function without need of permitsin non-containment areas, with workers allowed to commute to work in their own vehicles on the basis of a letter issued by the employer without need of a government pass.

2) Pallikarnai Wetland :- Pallikaranai wetland is a freshwater marsh in the city of Chennai, India.

It is situated adjacent to the Bay of Bengal, about 20 kilometres south of the city centre, and has a geographical area of 80 square kilometres.

  • It was signed in 1971 in the Iranian city of Ramsar and is one of the oldest inter-governmental accord for preserving the ecological character of wetlands.
  • It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands.

Montreux Record

  • Montreux Record under the Ramsar Convention is a register of wetland sites on the List of Wetlands of International Importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference.
  • It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.
  • Currently, two wetlands of India are in Montreux record: Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan) and Loktak Lake (Manipur).
  • Chilika lake (Odisha) was placed in the record but was later removed from it.

Recently :-

India has added 10 more wetlands to the sites protected by the Ramsar Convention.

  • These are:
    • Maharashtra: Nandur (state’s first).
    • Punjab: Keshopur-Miani, Beas Conservation Reserve and Nangal.
    • Uttar Pradesh: Nawabganj, Parvati Agra, Saman, Samaspur, Sandi and Sarsai Nawar.
  • The other 27 Ramsar sites are in Rajasthan, Kerala, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Manipur, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Tripura.

3) Conditions for Cotton Cultivation:-

Cotton is grown between latitudes of 37° north and 30° south in temperate, subtropical and tropical regions and on every continent.

Ideal conditions for the cotton plant are:

  • Long vegetation periods (175 to 225 days) without frost.
  • Constant temperatures between 18 and 30°.
  • Ample sunshine and fairly dry conditions.
  • A minimum of 500 mm of water between germination and boll formation.
  • Deep, well-drained soils with a good nutrient content.


  • Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-in) was established in January 2004.
  • The main function of CERT-In is to provide early security warning and effective incident response.
  • It operates on 24 x 7 basis and is actively engaging its users with early warning alerts and advisories.
  • It is aimed at catering to the needs of critical sectorsdefence, bankslaw enforcement & judiciary and e-governance project owners.
  • In the Information Technology (Amendment) Act 2008, CERT-In has been designated to serve as the national agency to perform the functions in the area of cyber security.
  • CERT-In has taken steps to implement National Information Security Assurance Programme (NISAP) to create awareness in government and critical sector organisations.

5) Editorial of the Day :-

At the edge of a new nuclear arms race

As per a recent Report : China might be conducting nuclear tests with low yields at its Lop Nur test site, in violation of its Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) undertakings.

About CTBT :-

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is the Treaty banning all nuclear explosions – everywhere, by everyone. The Treaty was negotiated at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva and adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. It opened for signature on 24 September 1996.

Why is the CTBT so important?

The CTBT is the last barrier on the way to develop nuclear weapons. It curbs the development of new nuclear weapons and the improvement of existing nuclear weapon designs. When the Treaty enters into force it provides a legally binding norm against nuclear testing. The Treaty also helps prevent human suffering and environmental damages caused by nuclear testing.

Although more than 180 countries have signed the CTBT, and mostly ratified it, the treaty can only enter into force after it is ratified by eight countries with nuclear technology capacity, namely China, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan and the United States.

Initial Phase of CTBT:- In 1991, Russia declared aunilateral moratorium on testing, followed by the U.S. in 1992.

By this time, the U.S. had conducted 1,054 tests and Russia, 715. Negotiations were often contentious.

France and China continued testing, claiming that they had conducted far fewer tests andneeded to validate new designssince the CTBT did not imply anend to nuclear deterrence.

France and the U.S. even toyed with the idea of a CTBT that would permittesting at a low threshold, below 500 tonnes of TNT equivalent.

This was one thirtieth of the “Little Boy”, the bomb the U.S.dropped on Hiroshima on August6, 1945 — its explosive yield was estimated to be the equivalent of15,000 tonnes of TNT.

The key change from the 1990s is that the U.S.’s unipolar moment is over and strategic competition among major powers is back.

The U.S. now identifies Russia and China as ‘rivals’. Its Nuclear Posture Review asserts that the U.S. faces new nuclear threats because both Russia and China are increasing their reliance on nuclear weapons.

The New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START)limits U.S. and Russian arsenals but will expire in 2021 and U.S. President Donald Trump has already indicated that he does not plan to extendit.

Instead, the Trump administration would like to bring China into some kind of nuclear arms control talks, something China has avoided by pointing to the fact that theU.S. and Russia still account for over 90% of global nuclear arsenals.

Conclusion:- The Cold War rivalry was already visible when the nuclear arms race began in the 1950s. New rivalries have already emerged. Resumption of nuclear testing may signal the demise of the ill-fated CTBT, marking the beginnings of a new nuclear arms race.

Editorial 2 :-

Pandemic and panic

Central Theme:- While ensuring distancing, govts should nottrigger crowding through abrupt changes .

What happened:- The Tamil Nadu government’s order intensifying the lockdown in Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai,Tiruppur and Salem from April 26 briefly convulsed these cities with panic, threatening to undo the gains achieved from avoiding crowding, maintaining physical distancing and preparing the public for a calibrated exit from restrictions.

If the idea was to halt therising rate of infections, which cumulatively touched 1,821 on April 25, the government’s announcement of a ‘complete lockdown’ was counterproductive.

How can this issue be resolved :-

  • Restricting movements and Activities is feasible if governments can bring essential articles virtually to one’s doorstep or make them available within walking distance.
  • Physical distancing and a ‘no mask, no service’ rule should apply.
  • An expanded permit system for delivery agents not just from online platforms, but authorised local merchants could address this.
  • Creating scannable codes can help essential services function smoothly and enable easier policing.
  • A system of codes may be inevitable, when select activity such as movement of industrial workers is permitted in future.
  • Periodic lockdowns mayalso become common, when there are infection spikes.
  • The administration needs refined tools and a consultative process with all sectors for this new normal.

7) Australia cancels premier air exercise:- Australia has informed India that its premier multilateral air combat training exercise—Pitch Black 2020— scheduled from July 27 to August 14 has been cancelled due tothe COVID-19 situation, defence sources said.

The bilateral naval exercise AUSINDEX early last year saw participation of the largest Australian contingent ever to India with over 1,000 personnel.


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