Prelims Specific News Items :-
1) India will stress ‘climate justice’ at global summit, says Minister
India will emphasise climate justice and exhort developed countries to transfer the finance and technology necessary to deal with the fallout of global warming, Environment Minister Bhupender Yadav told on the eve of his departure to Glasgow to participate in the 26th edition of the United Nations Conference of Parties (COP).
The world had publicly acknowledged India’s commitment to install 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030 as “ambitious”. There was also similar acknowledgement of India’s electric vehicle policy, its commitment to increase forest cover as well as the national hydrogen policy, he said. These steps by India, which were in line with achieving the target of the 2015 Paris Agreement, would be raised at the conference, the Minister added.
2) Support for terror outfit doesn’t attract UAPA: SC
The Supreme Court on Thursday held that “mere association” with a terrorist organisation as a member or otherwise is not sufficient to attract an offence under the draconian Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act of 1967.
Association or support for a terror outfit should be accompanied with an intention to commit acts to further the activities of the terrorist organization.
The court was dealing with Sections 38 (membership of a terrorist organisation) and 39 (supporting a terrorist organisation) of the UAPA. Both Sections attract imprisonment up to 10 years or fine or both. “Mere association with a terrorist organisation is not sufficient to attract Section 38 and mere support given to a terrorist organisation is not sufficient to attract Section 39.
3) Key U.S. lawmakers bat for CAATSA sanctions waiver
Key lawmakers continue to voice their support for a sanctions waiver for India for its purchase of the S400 missile defence system from Russia. India is likely to begin taking delivery of the S400 in November, potentially activating U.S. sanctions under a 2017 law, Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA).
Turkey, a NATO ally, was expelled from the American F35 programme (a consortium to build the aircraft) after it began accepting S400 shipments in 2019. President Joe Biden said in July Turkey will face further sanctions if it bought major equipment from Moscow.
4) Tushar Gandhi challenges Sabarmati Ashram revamp
Mahatma Gandhi’s greatgrandson Tushar Gandhi has moved the Gujarat High Court against the State Government’s ₹1,200crore plan to redevelop Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad.
In a PIL plea, Mr. Gandhi has challenged the proposal, under which the Government has started the redevelopment process that involves extending its area from five to 55 acres by relocating residents to nearby areas. He claimed that the project proposed was ‘diametrically opposed’ to the personal wishes of Mahatma Gandhi, who set up the ashram and lived there from 1917 to 1930.
The Government, however, has maintained that it would not change or alter any building on the ashram. All heritage buildings would be restored as per Gandhian ethos, it stated and asserted that the proposal was not aimed at a takeover but to redevelop it by expanding the areas.
5) Facebook changes parent company name to ‘Meta’
Facebook chief Mark Zuckerberg announced that the parent company’s name is being changed to “Meta” to represent a future beyond just its troubled social network.
6) Rupee, bonds gain on global oil price decline
All about Bond and bong Yield :–
What are bonds?
A bond is an instrument to borrow money. It is like an IOU. A bond could be floated/issued by a country’s government or by a company to raise funds. Since government bonds (referred to as G-secs in India, Treasury in the US, and Gilts in the UK) come with the sovereign’s guarantee, they are considered one of the safest investments.
What are bonds yields?
Simply put, the yield of a bond is the effective rate of return that it earns.
Every bond has a face value and a coupon payment.
Suppose the face value of a 10-year G-sec is Rs 100, and its coupon payment is Rs 5. Buyers of this bond will give the government Rs 100 (the face value); in return, the government will pay them Rs 5 (the coupon payment) every year for the next 10 years, and will pay back their Rs 100 at the end of the tenure. In this case, the bond’s yield, or effective rate of interest, is 5%. The yield is the investor’s reward for parting with Rs 100 today, but for staying without it for 10 years.
Imagine a situation in which there is just one bond, and two buyers (or people willing to lend to the government). In such a scenario, the selling price of the bond may go from Rs 100 to Rs 105 or Rs 110 because of competitive bidding by the two buyers. Importantly, even if the bond is sold at Rs 110, the coupon payment of Rs 5 will not change. Thus, as the price of the bond increases from Rs 100 to Rs 110, the yield falls to 4.5%.
As the price of the bond goes up, the yield falls; and as the price of the bond goes down, the yield goes up.
When interest rates are low, bond prices increase—because investors are seeking a better return.
Editorial of the day
Editorial 1 – Getting the focus back on Early Childhood Education
Early Childhood Education (ECE) is crucial to the overall development of children, with impacts on their learning and even earning capabilities throughout their lifetimes.
What is role of parental engagement? –
Enabling parental engagement in ECE requires an understanding of barriers that usually prevent parents from meaningfully engaging in their child’s education.
What are the Problems with parents while upbringing childs ? –
- Knowledge gap of parents
- Lack of Art / Emotional Intelligence
The pandemic has highlighted the glaring digital divide in the country, even in an urban context. Unless the state vows to provide devices and Internet access to all children, it is clear that complete reliance on technology is not an option.
Even for those who are able to overcome the initial barrier of access, the ability to engage in ECE at home remains dependent on time and ability.
Even among households that are able to create the time for education, many parents lack the self-efficacy to support their child’s learning. Most parents lack knowledge of effective methods to facilitate learning within the home, and appropriate means of using technology for education.
Crossing these barriers will become crucial as we move towards achieving universal and equitable ECE, as envisioned in the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020.
Being the first point of contact with both the child and the parents, teachers are the most equipped to effectively engage with parents, address their challenges, and design adaptable and innovative modes of teaching and learning.
What can be done –
- Efforts must be taken to empower households with time and resources so that they have the ability to prioritise ECE and are not forced to choose between their children’s education.
- Second, we must collect information about teachers’ experiences (on suitable modes of engagement with parents and children, delivery logistics, constraints of parents, etc.) and on innovations they have developed to increase parental engagement during school closures
Article 2 – Should the NDPS Act be amended?
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act of 1985.
How do you see the Ministry’s proposal to refer persons possessing drugs in smaller quantities to government-run rehabilitation centres instead of awarding them jail terms and imposing fines?
The proposal to send persons to rehabilitation centres is good on paper but do we have the infrastructure to ensure that it is properly implemented? The answer is ‘no’.
What are the problems ?
- We don’t have adequate de-addiction centre counsellors.
- We face an acute shortage of psychiatrists and counsellors.
- How many rehabilitation centres are there vis-à-vis the volume of persons involved in drug cases?
What author says – I suggest that the States be consulted. Policing is a State subject. It is not in the Concurrent list. So, instead of suggesting proposals to change sections of the law for the entire country, I think it would be advisable to introduce this on a pilot basis in one State that faces an acute drugs-related problem
During my visit to the U.S., I went to a shop to buy a bulletproof jacket; the vendor refused to sell it to me. As I was leaving, the shop owner noted details of the vehicle in which I was travelling. The question is do we have such responsible traders here.
What other steps can be taken to check the drug menace in the country?
There are three crucial factors we need to adopt to end the drug menace.
- While bringing up their wards, parents must be able to talk to their children and assure them of all support should they face a problem. Parents have to act as confidants first. Mutual trust should be so strong that wards come to them at the first sign of trouble. Sometimes, it could be a friend inducing them to take drugs once — once caught, they get trapped in a vicious cycle. So, our approach to tackling the problem should begin from home.
- Second, teachers should keep an eye on school surroundings to ascertain whether anyone is selling hookah pipes or ganja papers. Checking drugs usage is not the job of only the police. The police cannot enter every house and physically check if youngsters are using drugs. Everyone should have a proactive role.
- Civil society support is equally important. If everyone joins hands, wiping out drugs usage is not an issue at all.
Article 3 – The Glasgow climate test
The climate crisis is a code red for humanity. World leaders will soon be put to the test at the UN Climate Conference, known as COP26, in Glasgow. Their actions — or inactions — will show their seriousness about addressing this planetary emergency.
What are the warning signs:
- Temperatures everywhere are reaching new highs;
- Biodiversity is reaching new lows; and
- Oceans are warming, acidifying and choking with plastic waste.
Increasing temperatures will make vast stretches of our planet dead zones for humanity by this century’s end. The Lancet just described climate change as the “defining narrative of human health” in the years to come — a crisis defined by widespread hunger, respiratory illness, deadly disasters and infectious disease outbreaks.
What are the Targets ?
This target is achievable if we can reduce global emissions by 45% compared to 2010 levels this decade, if we can achieve global net zero by 2050, and if world leaders arrive in Glasgow with ambitious and verifiable 2030 targets, and new, concrete policies to reverse this disaster.
Way ahead –
No more excuses; no more green-washing. Investors must do the same. They should join front runners like the net zero asset owners’ alliance, and the UN’s own pension fund, which met its 2021 carbon reduction investment objectives ahead of time and above its target, with a 32% reduction this year. Individuals in every society need to make better, more responsible choices in what they eat, how they travel, and what they buy. And young people need to keep doing what they’re doing: demanding action from their leaders and keeping them accountable.