4 July, 2022 Daily Current Affairs – THE EXAMS MADE SIMPLE

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Prelims Objective Practices Questions

(I.) The Forchhammer’s Principle is related to which of the following?
A.) Ocean composition
B.) Population density
C.) Typhoon study
D.) None
Note :- Forchhammer’s Principle refers to the chemical composition of ocean water. A CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) device. The primary function of this tool is to detect how the conductivity and temperature of the water column changes relative to depth.

(II.) Arrange the following Seas of Europe Continent from North to South :
1. Baltic Sea
2. White Sea
3. Ionian Sea
4. Adriatic Sea
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
A.) 1-2-3-4
B.) 2-1-3-4
C.) 2-1-4-3
D.) 1-2-4-3

(III.) Bougainville Island is recently in news is located in which of the following Ocean?
A.) Indian Ocean
B.) Pacific Ocean
C.) Atlantic Ocean
D.) Arctic Ocean

(IV.) Which of the following is NOT part of Great lakes of North America?
A.) Victoria
B.) Ontario
C.) Michigan
D.) Erie

  • Some Facts about Great lakes :-
    • The Great Lakes are, from west to east: Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario.
    • They are a dominant part of the physical and cultural heritage of North America.
    • Shared with Canada and spanning more than 750 miles (1,200 kilometers) from west to east, these vast inland freshwater seas provide water for consumption, transportation, power, recreation and a host of other uses. The Great Lakes are one of the world’s largest surface freshwater ecosystems.

Bonus question :-

Q:- Building ‘Kalyaana Mandapas’ was a notable feature in the temple construction in the kingdom of-(A) Chalukya (B) Chandela
(C) Rashtrakuta (D) Vijayanagara

Mock Interview Question:-

  • Suppose you are District collector of a district where many small kids are standing at signals begging. How will you handle such situation in your district.

Prelims Specific Facts

1.)Tribal woman in M.P. set ablaze overland dispute

  • The Saharia tribe, a particularly vulnerable tribal group.
  • Tribal groups having features such as dependency on hunting, gathering for food, having pre-agriculture level of technology, zero or negative growth of population and extremely low level of literacy. These groups are called Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups.
  • PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups.
  • In this context, in 1975, the Government of India initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTGs and declared 52 such groups, while in 1993 an additional 23 groups were added to the category, making it a total of 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes, spread over 17 states and one Union Territory (UT), in the country (2011 census).
  • Government of India follows the following criteria for identifiaction of PVTGs.
    • Pre-agricultural level of technology
    • Low level of literacy
    • Economic backwardness
    • A declining or stagnant population.
  • Saharia tribe are particularly from MP and Rajasthan.

2.) Odisha woman has a forest named after her

  • Sarojini Vana (Sarojini Forest) may be mistaken for a memorial to freedom fighter Sarojini Naidu. But this lush land of rich verdure is a celebration of Sarojini Mohanta.
  • Who has gone beyond the call of duty to create and nurture a forest on a denuded patch in the Bonai forest division.

3.)Celebrating the unknown and the unsung

  • Hundred years ago, in August 1922, the forests of the Godavari Agency in the Madras Presidency witnessed attacks on three police stations over three continuous days. Alluri Sitarama Raju, along with 500 tribal people, attacked the police stations of Chintapalli, Krishnadevipeta and Rajavommangi and walked away with 26 police carbine rifles and 2,500 rounds of ammunition.
  • Sitarama Raju did not belong to the tribal community, but understood the restrictions that the British colonial administration placed on the tribal way of life. Forced labour, embargoes on collecting minor forest produce and bans on tribal agriculture practices led to severe distress among the Koyas of the Godavari Agency area. Known as the “Rampa Rebellion” or “Manyam Rebellion”, between August 1922 and May 1924, Alluriled a protracted battle against the British in support of the tribal community. Legend has it that Alluri himself would forewarn the British officers of an imminent attack and would challenge them to stop him with the superior resources that they had at
    hand. He was finally captured, tied to a tree and shot dead. However, the patriotic spark that he and several other heroes across the nation reinforced continues to thrive within all of us.

4.) Indians can get Rs. 10 Lakh from relatives abroad

  • The Union Home Ministry has amended certain rules related to the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), allowing Indians to receive up to 10 lakh in a year from relatives staying abroad without informing the authorities. The earlier limit was 1 lakh.
  • In a notification, the Ministry also said that if the amount exceeds it, the individuals will now have 90 days to inform the government, instead of 30 days earlier.
  • In a separate notification, the Ministry made five more offences under the FCRA “compoundable” instead of directly prosecuting the organisations or individuals. Earlier, only seven offences under the FCRA were compoundable.
  • The new rules, Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Rules, 2022, were notified by the Minis try.

5.) Chakmas

  • The Chakmas and Hajongs of Arunachal Pradesh are migrants from the Chittagong Hill Tracts of erstwhile East Pakistan, now Bangladesh. Displaced by the Kaptai dam on the Karnaphuli River in the 1960s, they sought asylum in India.
  • They settled in relief camps in the southern and south-eastern parts of Arunachal Pradesh from 1964 to 1969.
  • A majority of them live in the Changlang district of the State today.
  • Mizoram and Tripura have a sizeable population of the Buddhist Chakmas while the Hindu Hajongs mostly inhabit the Garo Hills of Meghalaya and adjoining areas of Assam.

6.) Targeting GI tag, Mayurbhanj,s super food ‘ ant chutney’ to find more tables

  • This weaver ants are popular among the people, mostly of the tribes, of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha for the mouth watering dish made of them – the Kai chutney.
  • This savoury food item, rich in proteins, calcium, zinc, vitamin B-12, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, copper, fiber and 18 amino acids, is known to boost the immune system and keep diseases at bay.
  • In Odisha, scientists are now fine-tuning their research to make a presentation for the Geographical Indications (GI) registry of Kai chutney.
  • Applied under food category, the GI tag will help develop a structured hygiene protocol in the preparation of Kai chutney for standard wider use.
  • Weaver ants, Oecophylla smaragdina, are abundantly found in Mayurbhanj throughout the year. They make nests with leaves of host trees.
  • The chutney is prepared by mixing and grinding salt, ginger, garlic and chilly and is sold by tribal people in rural markets.
  • Mayurbhanj consume Kai chutney or soup to get rid of flu, common cold, whooping cough, to increase appetite and enhance eyesight naturally without corrective eye wear and to treat joint pain and stomach diseases, and for the development of a healthy brain and the nervous system,”.
  • Kais feed on small insects and other invertebrates, their prey being mainly beetles, flies and hymenopterans,”.

Editorial of the Day

Technology is no panacea for custodial deaths

  • India has a grim record in police brutality and custodial violence. Between 2001 and 2018, 1,727 persons died in police custody, but only 26 policemen were convicted for such deaths.
  • Use of technology :-
    • Given the problem of custodial deaths, technology has been proposed as a silver bullet by many.
    • Several technological solutions are available to help prevent custodial deaths. These include body cameras and automated external defibrillators. There is no doubt that technology can help avert police custodial deaths. For example, body cameras could hold officers liable. Deception detection tests (DDTs), which deploy technologies such as polygraph, narco-analysis and brain mapping, could be valuable in learning information that is known only to a criminal regarding a crime.
    • Among the DDTs, the Brain Fingerprinting System (BFS) is an innovative technology that several police forces contemplate adding to their investigative tools. BFS has proved helpful for solving crimes, identifying perpetrators, and exonerating innocent suspects. Lab oratory and field tests for the BFS at the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency, and U.S. Navy demonstrated no errors and no false positives and false negatives.
    • In 2010, the Supreme Court, in Selvi v. State of Karnataka, rendered the evidence inadmissible. The court observed that the state could not perform narco analysis, polygraph, and brain mapping tests on any individual without their consent. With informed consent, however, any in formation or material discovered during the BFS tests can be part of the evidence. As the BFS is high end technology, it is expensive and unavailable in several States.
    • Police departments are increasingly using robots for surveillance and bomb detection.
    • Robots equipped with AI and sensor technology can build a rapport with the suspects, utilise persuasive techniques like flattery, shame and coercion, and strategically use body language.
    • Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) are emerging as tool of interrogations.
    • These are also options. ML can in real -time alert superiors when police are meting out inhumane treatment to suspects.
  • Valid concerns :-
    • There is a lot of concern about AI or robot interrogations, both legally and ethically. There exists the risk of bias, the peril automated interrogation tactics, the threat of ML algorithms targeting individuals and communities, and the hazard of its misuse for surveillance. Therefore, while the technology available to the police and law-enforcement agencies is constantly improving, it is a restricted tool that can’t eradicate custodial deaths. While it might provide comfort and transparency, it can never address the underlying is sues that lead to these situations.
    • What we need is the formulation of a multi-pronged strategy by the decision-makers encompassing legal enactments, technology, accountability, training and com munity relations. The Law Com mission of India’s proposition in 2003 to change the Evidence Act.
    • Technology may make policing more convenient, but it can never be an alternative for compassionate policing established on trust between the police and the citizens.

Explainer of the Day

1.) We need an urgent national plan on electrical safety

  • As per the data from the National Crime Record Bureau, the number of fatalities and rate of deaths (per lakh population) due to electric shocks and fires has been steadily increasing over the years.
  • Accidents, as the saying goes, do not just happen, but are caused. From the analysis of available data, it appears that over 90% of the people who die due to electrical accidents are the general public. Hence, any attempt to reduce such accidents must include the safety of general public as a top priority.

2.) Strains on India-Russia defence cooperation

  • As the Russia-Ukraine conflict stretches on with no clear endgame, there are apprehensions on Russia’s ability to adhere to the timelines for both spares and hardware.
  • Officials have stated that while some timeline lapses and shipping delays were possible, there would not be any dent on the Army’s operational preparedness along the borders especially the Line of Actual Control
  • Russian deals which have been deferred include the one for 21 MiG-29 fighter jets along with the up gradation of 59 existing MiG29 jets and the manufacture of 12SU.30 MKI aircraft.
  • The defence trade between India and Russia has crossed $15 billion since 2018, in the backdrop of some big deals including the $5.43 billions S-400 long range air defence system.

3.) The functioning of the National Investigation Agency

  • What is the NIA?
    • It is a central agency mandated to investigate all the offences affecting the sovereignty, security and integrity of India, friendly relations with foreign states, and the offences under the statutory laws enacted to implement international treaties, agreements, conventions and resolutions of the United Nations, its agencies and other international organisations. These include terror acts and their possible links with crimes like smuggling of arms, drugs and fake Indian currency and infiltration from across the borders. The agency has the power to search, seize, arrest and prosecute those involved in such offences.
    • Headquartered in Delhi, the NIA has its branches in Hyderabad, Guwahati, Kochi, Lucknow, Mumbai, Kolkata, Raipur, Jammu, Chandigarh, Ranchi, Chennai, Imphal, Bengaluru and Patna.
  • When did the NIA come into being?
    • In the wake of the 26/11 Mumbai terror attack in November 2008, which shocked the entire world, the then United Progressive Alliance government decided to establish the NIA. In December 2008, former Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram introduced the National Investigation Agency Bill.
    • The agency came into existence on December 31,2008 and started its functioning in 2009
  • What are the scheduled offences?
    • The list includes the Explosive Substances Act, Atomic Energy Act, Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, Anti-Hijacking Act, Suppression of Unlawful Acts against Safety of Civil Aviation Act, SAARC Convention (Suppression of Terrorism) Act, Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against Safety of Maritime Navigation and Fixed Platforms on Continental Shelf Act, Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act and relevant offences under the Indian Penal Code, Arms Act and the Information Technology Act.
    • In September 2020, the Centre empowered the NIA to also probe offences under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act that are connected to terror cases.
  • How wide is NIA’s jurisdiction?
    • The law under which the agency operates extends to the whole of India and also applies to Indian citizens outside the country; persons in the service of the government wherever they are posted; persons on ships and aircraft registered in India wherever they may be; persons who commit a scheduled offence beyond India against the Indian citizen or affecting the interest of India.
  • How does the NIA take up a probe?
    • As provided under Section 6 of the Act, State governments can refer the cases pertaining to the scheduled offences registered at any police station to the Central government (Union Home Ministry) for NIA investigation. After assessing the details made available, the Centre can then direct the agency to take over the case. State governments are required to extend all assistance to the NIA. Even when the Central government is of the opinion that a scheduled offence has been committed which is required to be investigated under the Act, it may, suo motu, direct the agency to take up/over the probe.
    • Where the Central government finds that a scheduled offence has been committed at any place outside India to which this Act extends, it can also direct the NIA to register the case and take up investigation. While investigating any scheduled offence, the agency can also investigate any other offence which the accused is alleged to have committed if the offence is connected to the scheduled offence.

4.) Beyond male and female, the right to humanity

  • The Court held that non-recognition of gender identity violates the rights to equality and life, and that transgendered persons should not be compelled to declare themselves as either male or female. The lack of recognitions of their gender identity curtails their access to education and results in discrimination in the exercise of their right to vote and secure employment.
  • An out standing feature of the decision is that the judges accepted the broad definition of transgender as including persons whose gender identity, gender expression or behavior did not conform to their biological sex, and more importantly, those who did not identify with the sex assigned to them at birth.
  • The Supreme Court judgment recognising the rights of transgendered persons is a landmark ruling and restores faith in the Court’s ability to recognise gross injustice. The Bench comprising Justices K.S. Radhakrishnan and A.K. Sikri has also restored the image of the Court as capable of bold moves when it comes to addressing the denial of the right to be human simply on the basis of one’s sexual status and conduct. The Court’s progressive image was in tatters after the Suresh Kumar Kaushal v. NAZ Foundation ruling in December 2013 that re-criminalised gays and lesbians, and overruled the 2009 Delhi High Court’s decision that Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code was not applicable to consensual sexual relations between adults.

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