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Art & Culture + Current Affairs MCQs for UPSC 2020 #32

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Questions & Answers

1.Which of the following is not correct about Hill temple architecture in Kashmir?

a) There is no Gandhara influence on the temple architecture.
b) They have influences of Hindu and Buddhist traditions.
c) The Karkota Empire was the most significant in terms of architecture.
d) Use of wood can be seen in these temples.

 

Solution: a)

Hill temple architecture in Kashmir

1) Place of development: hills of Kumaon, Garhwal, Himachal and Kashmir.

2) Influence:

  • Kashmir’s proximity to prominent Gandhara sites (such as Taxila, Peshawar and the northwest frontier) lent the region a strong Gandhara influence by the 5CE.
  • This began to mix with the Gupta and post-Gupta traditions that were brought to it from Sarnath, Mathura and even centres in Gujarat and Bengal.
  • Brahmin pundits and Buddhist monks frequently travelled between Kashmir, Garhwal, Kumaon and religious centres in the plains like Banaras, Nalanda and even as far south as Kanchipuram. As a result both Buddhist and Hindu traditions began to intermingle and spread in the hills.
  • The hills also had their own tradition of wooden buildings with pitched roofs.
  • The Karkota period of Kashmir is the most significant in terms of architecture. One of the most important temples is Pandrethan, built during the eighth and ninth centuries.

2. Which of the following are the famous universities of Ancient India.

1)Odantapuri
2)Vikramshila
3)Malinithan
4)Valabhi
5)Kancheepuram
Select the correct answer code:

a) 1, 2, 5
b) 1, 2, 3, 4
c) 1, 2, 4, 5
d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

 

Solution: c)

  • Odantapuri: It is located in Bihar and was made under the patronage of Pala dynasty King Gopala I. It was a Buddhist mahavihara.
  • Vikramshila: It is located in present-day Bhagalpur district of Bihar. It was established by King Dharampala of Pala dynasty, primarily as a Buddhist learning centre.
  • Valabhi: It was situated in Saurashtra, Gujarat. It was an important centre of learning for the Hinayana Buddhism.
  • Kancheepuram: It was a centre of learning for Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism from 1st century AD and achieved great name under the rule of Pallavas.
  • Malinithan is a temple dedicated to Deity Durga in her Shakti form located in Northern bank of the Brahmaputra River, Arunachal Pradesh.

3. Consider the following statements:

1)The national motto of India, ‘Satyameva Jayate’ inscribed below the Emblem of India is taken from Chandogya Upanishad
2)The Words ‘Satyameva Jayate’ were originally inscribed on the Lion Capital of Ashoka around 250 BCE.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both
d) None

 

Solution: d)

  • Satyameva Jayate is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka
  • Following the independence of India, it was adopted as the national motto of India in 26 January 1950.
  • It is inscribed in script at the base of the national emblem. The emblem and the words “Satyameva Jayate” are inscribed on one side of all Indian currency.
  • The emblem is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka which was erected around 250 BCE at Sarnath, near Varanasi in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

4. Which of the following are the features of Indo-Islamic architecture.

1)Indo-Islamic architecture used human and animal figures.
2)The architecture of this period heavily used the principles of Geometry.
3)An important feature of the architecture during this period was the use of water in the premises of the constructions.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2
b) 1, 3
c) 2, 3
d) 1, 2, 3

 

Solution: c)

  • The Indo-Islamic architecture avoided the use of human and animal figures.
  • The architecture of this period heavily used the principles of geometry – from decorative pattern to imbibing a sense of symmetry.
  • An important feature of the architecture during this period was the use of water in the premises of the constructions in the form of courtyard pools, fountains and small drains.
  • Water was used primarily for three purposes:
    • Religious purpose
    • Cooling the premises
    • Decorative purpose.

5. Which of the following are the major Buddhist pilgrimage sites in India.

1)Mahabodhi temple.
2)Shravanabelagola
3)Nagapattinam
4)Sittanavasal Caves
Select the correct answer code:

a) 1, 2, 3
b) 1, 3
c) 2, 3, 4
d) 1, 3, 4

 

Solution: b)

Sittanavasal Caves in Tamil Nadu and Shravanabelagola in Karnataka are Jain pilgrimage sites in India.

6.Consider the following statements regarding Hepatitis.

1)Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C are liver infections caused by three different viruses.
2)Hepatitis A is usually a short-term infection and does not become a long-term infection.
3)There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2
b) 2, 3
c) 1, 3
d) 3 only

 

Solution: a)

  • Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. 
  • Causes: Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can all cause hepatitis. However, hepatitis is often caused by a virus.
  • What is the difference between hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C?
    • Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C are liver infections caused by three different viruses.
  • Hepatitis A is usually a short-term infection and does not become a long-term infection.
  • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C can also begin as short-term infections but in some people, the virus remains in the body, and causes chronic, or lifelong, infection.
  • There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and hepatitis B; however, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
  • The hepatitis B virus is spread when blood, semen, or other body fluid infected with the hepatitis B virus enters the body of a person who is not infected.

7. Consider the following statements about Indian Rhino Vision 2020.

1)It was launched by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) in partnership with WWF-India.
2)The vision is to attain a population of 1000 wild rhinos in Assam.
3)The programme involves wild-to-wild translocation of Rhinos.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

a) 1, 3
b) 2, 3
c) 1, 2
(d) 1, 2 , 3

 

Solution: c)

  • Indian Rhino Vision 2020 (IRV 2020) programme launched by the Assam Forest Department in partnership with WWF-India, the International Rhino Foundation and US Fish & Wildlife Service in 2005.
  • The programme aims at increasing the number and range of rhinos in Assam through wild-to-wild translocations from Kaziranga National Park and Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary to potential Protected Areas including Manas National Park, Burachapori Wildlife Sanctuary, Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary, and Dibru-Saikhowa National Park.
  • The vision is to attain a population of 3000 wild rhinos in Assam, distributed over seven of its Protected Areas by 2020.

8. Operation Peace Spring, recently seen in news was conducted by

a) Saudi Arabia
b) USA
c) Turkey
d) Yemen

 

Solution: c)

The 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria, code-named by Turkey as Operation Peace Spring is an ongoing cross-border military operation conducted by the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) and the Syrian National Army (SNA) against the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) and the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) in north-eastern Syria.

9. Consider the following statements regarding Indian Ocean Conference.

1)Indian Ocean Conference has been initiated by Indian Ocean Rim Association.
2)It is an annual conference that aims to bring together Heads of States/Governments, Ministers, thought leaders, scholars, diplomats, bureaucrats and practitioners from across the region on a single platform.
3)Fishing in the Indian Ocean now accounts for almost 50% of the world’s total.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2
b) 2 only
c) 1, 3
d) 2, 3

 

Solution: b)

  • Fourth Indian Ocean Conference 2019 was recently held in Male, capital of Maldives.
  • Indian Ocean Conference is Initiated by India Foundation along with its partners from Singapore, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.
  • It is an annual effort to bring together Heads of States/Governments, Ministers, Thought Leaders, scholars, diplomats, bureaucrats and practitioners from across the region.
  • Indian Ocean is also rich in natural resources. 40% of the world’s offshore oil production takes place in the Indian Ocean basin.
  • Fishing in the Indian Ocean now accounts for almost 15% of the world’s total.

10.Consider the following statements about Universal Health Coverage (UHC).

1)It means free coverage for all possible health interventions, regardless of the cost.
2)UHC includes population-based services such as public health campaigns and controlling mosquito breeding grounds.
3)Achieving UHC is one of the key targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1, 2
b) 1, 3
c) 2, 3
d) 1, 2, 3

 

Solution: c)

  • UHC means that all individuals and communities receive the health services they need without suffering financial hardship.
  • Achieving UHC is one of the targets the nations of the world set when adopting the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015.
  • There are many things that are not included in the scope of UHC:
    • UHC does not mean free coverage for all possible health interventions, regardless of the cost..
    • UHC is not just about health financing. It encompasses all components of the health system: health service delivery systems, the health workforce, health facilities and communications networks, health technologies, information systems, quality assurance mechanisms, and governance and legislation.
    • UHC is not only about ensuring a minimum package of health services, but also about ensuring a progressive expansion of coverage of health services and financial protection as more resources become available.
    • UHC is not only about individual treatment services, but also includes population-based services such as public health campaigns, adding fluoride to water, controlling mosquito breeding grounds, and so on.
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