Q.1 Which one of the following is a Legacy Dispute Resolution scheme which is offered to those taxpayers who wish to disclose any previously undisclosed tax liability without any penalty or prosecution?
(a) Sabka Vishwas Scheme
(b) KALIA Scheme-+
(c) PAHAL Scheme
(d) Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Shramev Jayate Yojana
Q.2 With which of the following companies/ organizations, The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) has signed a statement of intent to roll-out ‘Build for Digital India’ programme?
(d) Powerhouse Cooper
Q.3 Who is the ex-officio chairman of The National Board for Wildlife (NBWL)?
(a) Union Minister of Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
(b) Prime Minister
(c) Secretary to Environment Ministry
(d) Chief Secretary
GAGANYAAN AND CHANDRAYAAN 3
Four pilots from the Indian Air Force (IAF) will leave for Russia this month to receive training as astronauts of Gaganyaan, the first Indian crewed flight to space.
They were shortlisted after a series of fitness and endurance tests, ISRO Chairman K. Sivan announced at a press meet on Wednesday.
The initial tests were conducted in the IAF’s Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Bengaluru, and Russia. The four will leave in the third week of January to be trained at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Centre in Moscow, as per an agreement signed between the space agencies of the two countries last year.
Gaganyaan, announced by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi in August 2018, is the ₹10,000-crore Indian human space flight scheduled for 2022. It is designed to have 3-7 crew members spend 3-7 days in space in a 400-km orbit.
The first of the two pre-Gaganyaan flights with a humanoid will be launched this year-end along with some of the six shortlisted micro-gravity experiments, Dr. Sivan said.
Announced on August 15, 2018 Gaganyaan the country’s first crewed mission is set to happen by 2022.
Rocketman Unnikrishanan Nair will helm the mission.
Gaganyaan Mission is slated to take place at a near earth distance of 400 km.
Human Space Flight Center at ISRO headquartersin Bengaluru will be the hub of ISRO’s manned mission.
The launch of the nearly ₹600-crore Chandrayaan-3 is targeted for the end of this year or early 2021.
ABOUT CHANDRAYAAN 2
- India’s second lunar mission and first lunar lander rover mission.
- Launched on July 22 from Sri Harikota (sriharikota is a barrier island off the bay of bengal coast located in the nellore district of andhra pradesh, india. it houses the satish dhawan space centre, one of the two satellite launch centres in india.) using the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle.
- Chandrayaan 2 was expected to be the first mission to reach and study the south pole of the moon.
- It was made up of an orbiter, a lander named ‘Vikram’, after Vikram A. Sarabhai, the founding father of space science research in India, and a rover named ‘Pragyan’, which means ‘wisdom’.
- Chandrayaan-2’s 27 kg robotic vehicle Pragyan, which translates to ‘wisdom’ in Sanskrit, can travel up to 500 m from the landing spot on the Moon and leverages solar energy for its functioning.
- The lander carried three scientific payloads to conduct surface and sub-surface science experiments, while the rover carries two payloads to enhance our understanding of the lunar surface,
LINE OF ACTUAL CONTROL
NEWS: Maintaining peace and tranquillity on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) with China can set the stage for an eventual solution to the border issue, Army chief Gen. M.M. Naravane said on Wednesday.
At present, Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the line separating Indian areas of Jammu and Kashmir from Aksai Chin. It is concurrent with the Chinese Aksai Chin claim line.
CHIEF OF DEFENSE STAFF
NEWS:The armed forces stay far away from politics, Gen. Bipin Rawat said on Wednesday after taking charge as the country’s first Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) on Wednesday morning.
His remark comes in the backdrop of his recent comments condemning student protests which drew sharp responses from political parties and on social media.
CDS will be the single-point military adviser to the government as suggested by the Kargil Review Committee in 1999. CDS will head the department of military affairs with salary equivalent to Service Chiefs.
The broad mandate of theCDS includes bringing about jointness in “operations, logistics, transport, training,support services, communications, repairs and maintenance of the three Services,within three years of the first CDS assuming office.”“He will act as the Principal Military Adviser to Defence Minister on all triServices matters. However, the three Chiefs will continue to advise the Minister on matters exclusively concerning their respective Services.
Interestingly, the sources said the CDS would also evaluate plans “for ‘Out ofArea Contingencies’, as well other contingencies such as Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR).”
The government also recently informed Parliament that the CDS would come in the ambit of ‘Right to Information Act’, in accordance with the provisions of theRTI Act, 2005
BHIMA KOREGAON BATTLE
Lakhs of devotees, neo-Buddhists, members of Ambedkarite outfits, politicians, students and other visitors are expected to congregate near the ransthamb or victory pillar in Bhima-Koregaon village for the 202nd anniversary of the Bhima-Koregaon battle of 1818 on New Year’s Day on Wednesday.
About the Bhima- Koregaon battle:
A battle was fought in Bhima Koregaon, a district in Pune with a strong historical Dalit connection, between the Peshwa forces and the British on January 1, 1818. The British army, which comprised mainly of Dalit soldiers, fought the upper caste-dominated Peshwa army. The British troops defeated the Peshwa army.
Outcomes of the battle:
- The victory was seen as a win against caste-based discrimination and oppression. Peshwas were notorious for their oppression and persecution of Mahar dalits. The victory in the battle over Peshwas gave dalits a moral victory a victory against caste-based discrimination and oppression and sense of identity.
- However, the divide and rule policy of the British created multiple fissures in Indian society which is even visible today in the way of excessive caste and religious discrimination which needs to be checked keeping in mind the tenets of the Constitution.
Why Bhima Koregaon is seen as a Dalit symbol?
- The battle has come to be seen as a symbol of Dalit pride because a large number of soldiers in the Company force were the Mahar Dalits. Since the Peshwas, who were Brahmins, were seen as oppressors of Dalits, the victory of the Mahar soldiers over the the Peshwa force is seen as Dalit assertion.
- On 1 January 1927, B.R. Ambedkar visited the memorial obelisk erected on the spot which bears the names of the dead including nearly two dozen Mahar soldiers. The men who fought in the battle of Koregaon were the Mahars, and the Mahars are Untouchables.
SATCOM TECHNOLOGY FOR LEARNING
The Congress government in Rajasthan has started using satellite communication technology in a big way to enhance the learning outcome in educational institutions and generate awareness about social welfare schemes, while giving priority to the five aspirational districts selected by NITI Aayog in the State.
The Science & Technology Department has taken an initiative to provide the facility of receive only terminals (ROT) and satellite interactive terminals (SIT) for getting the services of subject experts in the government schools and colleges and propagate various schemes in the remote areas with no Internet connectivity.
The students studying English and science subjects in the government educational institutions will get services of subject experts through ROT and SIT. Ms. Sinha said the level of English and science subjects would be increased among students of Class VI to XII in order to get better results in the board examinations of Class X and XII.
The new programme’s facility will also be provided to all the 134 model schools, Kasturba Gandhi Girls’ Schools, Social Welfare Department’s hostels, children’s homes and students of a government college in each district. The institutions with the shortage of teachers will especially benefit from the geostationary satellite uplinking facilities.
The special focus of the initiative will be laid on the five aspirational districts selected by NITI Aayog — Karauli, Dholpur, Baran, Jaisalmer and Sirohi — where the satellite-related resources would be installed at the old age homes and children’s homes.
ARMED FORCES SPECIAL POWER ACT
NEWS:Manipur Chief Minister N. Biren Singh has said the law and order situation in the State has improved in recent years, but it is still not conducive to repeal the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.
Mr. Singh said insurgency-related violence has decreased in the State during the last three years and he has apprised the Union Home Ministry of the improved situation.
Social activist Irom Chanu Sharmila was on fast for more than 13 years demanding its repeal after 10 civilians were killed by Assam Rifles on November 2, 2000.
- In simple terms, AFSPA gives armed forces the power to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”.
- They have the authority to prohibit a gathering of five or more persons in an area, can use force or even open fire after giving due warning if they feel a person is in contravention of the law.
- If reasonable suspicion exists, the army can also arrest a person without a warrant; enter or search a premises without a warrant; and ban the possession of firearms.
- Any person arrested or taken into custody may be handed over to the officer in charge of the nearest police station along with a report detailing the circumstances that led to the arrest.
What is a “disturbed area” and who has the power to declare it?
- A disturbed area is one which is declared by notification under Section 3 of the AFSPA. An area can be disturbed due to differences or disputes between members of different religious, racial, language or regional groups or castes or communities.
- The Central Government, or the Governor of the State or administrator of the Union Territory can declare the whole or part of the State or Union Territory as a disturbed area. A suitable notification would have to be made in the Official Gazette. As per Section 3 , it can be invoked in places where “the use of armed forces in aid of the civil power is necessary”.
- The Ministry of Home Affairs would usually enforce this Act where necessary, but there have been exceptions where the Centre decided to forego its power and leave the decision to the State governments.
What’s the origin of AFSPA?
- The Act came into force in the context of increasing violence in the Northeastern States decades ago, which the State governments found difficult to control. The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Bill was passed by both the Houses of Parliament and it was approved by the President on September 11, 1958. It became known as the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, 1958.
Which States are, or had come under this Act?
- It is effective in the whole of Nagaland, Assam, Manipur (excluding seven assembly constituencies of Imphal) and parts of Arunachal Pradesh.
- The Centre revoked it in Meghalaya on April 1, 2018. Earlier, the AFSPA was effective in a 20 km area along the Assam-Meghalaya border. In Arunachal Pradesh, the impact of AFSPA was reduced to eight police stations instead of 16 police stations and in Tirap, Longding and Changlang districts bordering Assam.
- Tripura withdrew the AFSPA in 2015. Jammu and Kashmir too has a similar Act.
NILGIRI BIOSPHERE RESERVE
NEWS: The Kerala Forest and Wildlife department is gearing up to adopt comprehensive steps to arrest the rampant growth of invasive alien plants, especially tree species like ‘Senna Spectabilis’, in the forest areas of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR), including the Wayanad wildlife sanctuary.
The plant started to invade in adjacent tiger reserves, including Bandipur and Nagarhole in Karnataka and the Mudumalai tiger reserve in Tamil Nadu, P.A. Vinayan, president of the society, said.
Earlier, it was planted as avenue trees along roadsides in Wayanad. Due to massive flowering and drying of bamboo species in the Wayanad, lots of open spaces were created which were occupied by Senna Spectabilis.
An adult tree grows up to 15 to 20 metres in a short period of time and every year distributes thousands of seeds after the gregarious flowering. The thick foliage arrests the growth of other indigenous species of trees and grass, and causes food shortage for the wildlife population, especially herbivores, during summer.
NILGIRI BIOSPHERE RESERVE
Declared as World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2012.
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve includes Aralam, Mudumalai, Mukurthi, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Silent Valley National Parks as well as Wayanad and Sathyamangalam wildlife sanctuaries.
Tribal groups likeTodas, Kotas, Irullas, Kurumbas, Paniyas, Adiyans are native to the reserve.
FIRST EDITORIAL: INFRASTRUCTURE PUSH
WHAT IS THIS PUSH?
Announcement by the Finance Minister of a mega push to infrastructure investment adding up to ₹102 lakh crore over the next five years belongs in this category. Projects in energy, roads, railways and urban infrastructure under the National Infrastructure Pipeline (NIP) have been identified by a task force.
About 42% of such identified projects are already under implementation, 19% are under development and 31% are at the conceptual stage.
For an economy that is tottering, a big bang announcement from the government can sometimes work to turn around sentiment.
The government’s push on infrastructure development will not only enable ease of living — such as metro trains in cities and towns — but also create jobs and increase demand for primary commodities such as cement and steel. From this perspective, this push to invest in infrastructure is welcome.
WHAT WILL BE THE HURDLES?
First, the financing plan assumes that the Centre and the States will fund 39% each while the private sector will chip in with 22% of the outlay. Going by the present fiscal situation, it will be no small challenge for the Centre to raise ₹39 lakh crore, even if it is over the next five years. The financial position of States is even more perilous.
Second, the ₹22 lakh crore expected from private investment also looks steep considering the lack of appetite for fresh investment by the private sector in the last few years. In fact, this factor has been a major drag on economic growth. Given the scale of investment, debt will play an important role and it remains to be seen if banks have gotten over their apprehensions on infrastructure financing as a major part of their bad loans originated there.
Finally, cooperation from States becomes very important in implementing infrastructure projects. The experience on this count has not been very happy till now.
The key will be following up and reviewing the pipeline at regular intervals.
LEAD ARTICLE: DIPLOMATIC CHALLENGES FOR INDIA
Author highlights that there is a huge contrast between first five years of Modi government and the first year in his second tenure (2019-2020) in the matters of foreign policy.
Rather than dealing with bilateral ties, the Ministry of External Affairs and its missions abroad are now fully devoted to dealing with India’s domestic concerns and their fallout.
Among them, the decision to amend Article 370 of the Constitution on Jammu and Kashmir, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019, or the CAA, 2019, and the proposal for the National Register of Citizens (NRC) have been called into question by several countries and international organisations.
BIGGEST IMPACT ON US
The impact of these policies has been most keenly felt in ties with the U.S., where bipartisan support for India has been the norm for at least two decades. The whittling away of Democrat support was evident early on during the “Howdy Modi” event in September 2019, where only three out of the two dozen lawmakers at the event were from the Democratic Party; the party, especially under Mr. Obama, had been very supportive of the Modi government.
A resolution urging India to lift restrictions in Kashmir, sponsored by Indian-American lawmaker Pramila Jayapal, now has 29 co-sponsors, including two Republicans, and a lawmaker who had earlier attended “Howdy Modi”.
The same issues found voice in the U.K. Parliament. In the European Parliament, last September, there were also discussions on Kashmir. It also led to heated battles within their polities, as Kashmir became a campaign talking point between Labour and Conservative candidates in the U.K. elections. The Modi government’s invitation to far-right Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) to visit Kashmir (last October) has riled European diplomats from various countries — they have been denied similar access.
IMPACT ON NEIGHBORHOOD
In the neighbourhood, the government has upset both friend and foe with its wording of the CAA. Pakistan is predictably angry, while Afghanistan is more muted. But the real damage has been done to ties with Bangladesh.
In the past decade, and especially after completing the Land Boundary Agreement, Dhaka and New Delhi had worked hard on building connectivity, opening energy routes, trade and developing travel links.
The relationship was seen as a “win-win” in contrast to the preceding years when terror safe-havens and border killings dominated the India-Bangladesh narrative. By clubbing Bangladesh with Pakistan and Afghanistan on treatment of minorities, India has introduced a note of bitterness that is hard to mistake in the bilateral engagement.
If close friend Bangladesh that defends India at the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation feels that India’s actions are religiously discriminatory, it is only a matter of time before others in the Islamic world, most notably the Arab countries, who have been muted so far, will become more vocal. The OIC’s plans for a special meet on Kashmir and the CAA in April 2020, possibly in Islamabad, is one such indicator.
WHAT COULD BE ITS IMPACT?
In the U.S. Congress too, lawmakers can effectively block defence sales to India, or pursue sanctions on the S-400 missile system purchase from Russia, for example, regardless of support in the Trump administration for India.
On the international stage, the United Nations and its affiliated bodies, which often seem toothless, could provide a platform for India to be targeted. In December 2019, a suit by a relatively remote player, the Gambia, ensured that Myanmar’s top leadership was made to appear for a public hearing at the International Court of Justice at The Hague in connection with the Rohingya issue.
New Delhi’s break in ties with Turkey and Malaysia for their comments at the UN on Kashmir could also lead to them vetoing India’s legitimate position at the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), where it hopes to blacklist Pakistan for terror financing this year.
India’s diplomatic capital is being depleted at a rate unseen in the last few decades. And to paraphrase Cassius in Shakespeare’s “Julius Caesar”, the fault may not lie in our diplomatic stars, but in ourselves, and the problematic message the government is now trying to convey.
SECOND ARTICLE: THE NEED FOR A SINGLE ENERGY MINISTRY
NUMBER OF MINISTRIES AT PRESENT
Five different ministries along with a multitude of regulators govern India’s energy sector.
Petroleum and natural gas, coal, renewable energy and nuclear energy have separate ministries or departments.
We also have a Ministry of Power, along with State-level bodies that regulate electricity distribution companies, or DISCOMS.
Add to this, the presence of different regulators for each type of fuel and energy source which makes it cumbersome for businesses operating in this sector.
Further, the petroleum and natural gas sector has two regulators – Directorate General of Hydrocarbons for upstream activities and the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board for downstream activities.
PROBLEMS WITH DATA COLLECTION
There are also issues with data collection. No single agency collects energy data in a wholesome and integrated manner.
Data pertaining to consumption are barely available while supply side data collected by agencies of respective ministries are riddled with gaps.
The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation collates data available from various ministries and conducts surveys at sporadic intervals.
On the energy efficiency front, the Bureau of Energy Efficiency is the sole statutory authority with the mandate to regulate energy efficiency on the consumption side. There is no agency or body for the same purpose on the supply side.
WHICH COMMITTEES HAVE RECOMMENDED FOR SINGLE MINISTRY
The Kelkar Committee in its report “Roadmap for Reduction in Import Dependency in the Hydrocarbon Sector by 2030” (2013) stated that “Multiple ministries and agencies are currently involved in managing energy-related issues, presenting challenges of coordination and optimal resource utilization, hence undermining efforts to increase energy security”.
In the Draft National Energy Policy (NEP), the NITI Aayog has advocated that a Unified Ministry of Energy be created by merging the Ministries of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoPNG), Coal (MoC), New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and Power (MoP). The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has been left out since it has implications beyond the scope of energy and involves national security issues.
The proposed ministry would have six agencies under it to handle various aspects of the energy sector — Energy Regulatory Agency, Energy Data Agency, Energy Efficiency Agency, Energy Planning and Technical Agency, Energy Schemes Implementation Agency and Energy R&D Agency.
HOW THIS SCHEME WILL BE HELPFUL?
A single unified ministry of energy would help India to have an integrated outlook on energy that would enable us optimise our limited resources to meet the goals of energy security, sustainability and accessibility.
In the fast-changing energy landscape of our country, having a single energy ministry would be beneficial as it would allow for a quicker policy response.
Accepting and implementing the recommendations of the NEP on reforming energy governance, which is to be placed for the approval of the Cabinet soon, would need to be carefully traversed given their hard-hitting implications on the existing bureaucratic structure.
Such a Unified Ministry of Energy will not only enable India to keep up with the global energy transition but also to continue to be a leader in adopting cleaner energy sources.
SECOND EDITORIAL: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS INDEX
The NITI Aayog’s Sustainable Development Goals Index for 2019, released on Monday, does not reveal any surprising information.
The South’s Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Karnataka are joined by Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Goa as the best performers while the northern/north-central and north-eastern States have been laggardly in achieving the UN-mandated goals by 2030.
WHY SUCH A VARIANCE?
The South, led by Kerala and Tamil Nadu, has done much more in orienting administrative institutions to deliver on basic welfare, leading to actions on health care, education, poverty eradication and hunger, with a governance structure tuned to competitively monitoring actions on these fronts.
BIGGEST CHALLENGE TO ACHIEVE SDG: GENDER EQUALITY
A major fault-line in India is in achieving gender equality, where barring middling performers such as Himachal Pradesh, Kerala and Jammu & Kashmir, the rest of the country falls short.
Low sex ratio (896 females per 1,000 males), poor labour force participation and presence in managerial positions (only 17.5% and 30%, according to the report), high level of informality of labour, a major gender pay gap (females earn 78% of wages earned by males in regular salaried employment), lack of adequate representation in governance (14.4% in Parliament, but 44.4% in local government) besides high crime rates against women and girls are among the major national level indicators that have contributed to this.
States need to climb a mountain to achieve gender equality, but immediate steps such as enhancing women’s participation in governance through parliamentary reservations would go a long way in addressing several of the issues faced by them.
LEAD ARTICLE EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS
In recent years, there has been a clamour for exceptional treatment for certain offences, resulting in stringent statutes for terror cases, narcotics offences, economic offences and sexual offences.
These offences increasingly invite harsher punishments but more importantly lead to fundamental departures from the basic principles of criminal justice.
From strict liability to presumptions of guilt to minimum mandatory sentencing to the question of bail, these offences are often deemed to require special treatment.
Recently, while arguing for bail for former Union Minister P. Chidambaram, it was repeatedly argued that economic offenders cannot be given bail.
In anti-terror and narcotics cases, in order to grant bail, the court has to be satisfied that the accused is not guilty even before trial, which is impossible.
The clamour for exceptional treatment of sexual crimes has reached unprecedented levels in recent times — as seen in the President’s wish that mercy petitions be withdrawn from child sexual abuse cases and the Andhra Pradesh government’s proposed law which requires rape cases to be completed within 21 days.
There is a kind of a hierarchy of heinousness of offences within which this discourse of criminal reform has unfolded. The result is an acceptance of differential standards for such offences.
PROCEDURE SEEN AS PROBLEM
Already the dilution of procedural safeguards is seen as acceptable for heinous offences. But now even that is perceived as not going far enough. Extrajudicial killings by the police therefore are thought by many as just and necessary.
The ideal of substantive justice dominates the Indian public sphere, with complete impatience for procedural justice. The language of judicial reform since the 1970s has embraced this disdain for procedure, as seen in tribunalisation, Lok Adalats, and Public Interest Litigation. Procedural safeguards have come to be seen as un-Indian, no less.
ISSUE: WHAT SHOULD BE DONE TO AVOID FIRE LIKE INSTANCES?
First stage towards a fire-safe building is to construct the building with fire-resistant/retardant materials and install smoke detection systems and fire alarms. A building’s fire alarm/detection system should be connected with the city’s fire system.
Once electrical and fire installations are in place, they should be certified by authorised persons and agencies. These will help identify and monitor risks of short circuits due to changes in building use, change in load pattern, etc. Only qualified persons and firms should be authorised to inspect buildings.
Awareness of fire safety is nearly absent in India. In schools, the curriculum should have a chapter on fire safety. Regular drills should be conducted so that children are prepared to handle such incidents. Communities managing housing and commercial premises need to regularly organise awareness programmes with assistance from authorised persons and agencies. These need to be not only on fire safety but also on other disasters such as earthquakes and floods.
Infrastructural changes are mandatory too. We need dedicated access lanes for quick movement of emergency vehicles. Under the Smart Cities Mission, ‘smart control rooms’ should be able to guide emergency vehicles through the shortest route and enable coordination among various departments such as police, traffic police, fire, ambulance, and security forces.
NATIONAL POPULATION REGISTER
NEWS:The Union Home Ministry on Wednesday clarified that no person needs to submit any documents during the house-to-house survey for updating the National Population Register and that information provided by individuals would be accepted and recorded.
Through a series of tweets, the Ministry sought to deny the thrust of a report in The Hindu headlined “NPR trial form gets government nod for rollout” that appeared on Wednesday.
About National Population Register
- It is a list of “usual residents of the country”.
- A “usual resident of the country” is one who has been residing in a local area for at least the last six months, or intends to stay in a particular location for the next six months.
- Legal Provisions:
- The NPR is being prepared under provisions of the Citizenship Act 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.
- It is mandatory for every “usual resident of India” to register in the NPR.
- The data for the NPR was first collected in 2010 along with the house listing phase of Census 2011.
- In 2015, this data was further updated by conducting a door-to-door survey.
NEWS: Pro-Iran demonstrators left the besieged U.S. Embassy in Baghdad on Wednesday after the Hashed al-Shaabi paramilitary force ordered them to withdraw a day after their dramatic incursion.
Thousands of Iraqi supporters of the largely Iranian-trained Hashed had encircled and vandalised the Embassy compound on Tuesday, outraged by U.S. air strikes that killed 25 Hashed fighters over the weekend.
They marched unimpeded through the checkpoints of the usually high-security Green Zone to the Embassy gates, where they broke through a reception area, chanting “Death to America” and spraying pro-Iran graffiti on the walls.
- Located in Western Asia
- Bordered by TURKEY to north, Iran to east, Kuwait to South East, Saudi Arabia to South, Jordan to South west and Syria to the west
- Capital: Baghdad
- Major rivers: Tigirs and Euphrates. Runs in Southern Iraq
- Region between the Tigris and Euphrates is historically known as Mesopotamia.
An initial public offering (IPO) refers to the process of offering shares of a private corporation to the public in a new stock issuance. Public share issuance allows a company to raise capital from public investors.
Insurance Regulatory Development Authority (IRDA) is a statutory body set up by the IRDA Act, 1999.
It is an autonomous and apex body which has the responsibility to regulate and control the Insurance sector in India. Insurance Regulatory Development Authority (IRDA) was established after the recommendations of Malhotra Committee report of 1994.
The committee had recommended for the establishment of an independent authority for the regulation of Insurance sector in India.
Thus Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) Act, 1991 was enacted and the IRDA received the status of a statutory body in 2000 by the Indian Parliament.
Initially, IRDA was set up as an autonomous body headquartered at New Delhi. The headquarters of IRDA was later on shifted to Hyderabad, Telangana in 2001.
The Government of India appoints the Chairman and other members of the Insurance Regulatory Development Authority (IRDA).
Composition of the authority of the Insurance Regulatory Development Authority (IRDA)
The Section 4 of the Insurance Regulatory Development Authority (IRDA) Act, 1999 specifies the composition of authority which consists of 10 member team appointed by the government of India which includes.
- One chairman
- Five whole time members
- Four part time members
- To specify the required qualifications, practical training and the code of conduct for the intermediaries or the agents and insurance intermediaries.
- To specify the code of conduct for the loss assessors and the surveyors.
- To promote efficiency and effectiveness in the insurance business.
- To promote and regulate the professional organisations which are interconnected with the insurance and reinsurance sectors.
- To levy fees and charges which are essential to carry out the purposes of this IRDA act.+-