Q.1. Consider the following statements regarding Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana.
1. It has been launched by the Government of India in its Budget 2019.
2. It is an area based development approach of predominantly dalit villages.
3. It aimed to achieve integrated development of selected villages with more than 25% SC population.
Which of the above statements are incorrect?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Q.2. Consider the following statements regarding Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY):
1. The loan under PMMY can be availed for both farm and non-farm sector income generating activity.
2. There is no subsidy for the loan given under PMMY.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Q.3 Which of the following statements is correct regarding Samudrayaan Project?
(a) It is an ocean project of ISRO to carry various projects in deep ocean.
(b) It is a pilot project of the Ministry of Earth Sciences’ for deep ocean mining for
(c) It is a Ministry of Home project to strengthen the maritime security.
(d) It is a project under Ministry of defence to develop indigenous nuclear powered
Parties across political lines on Saturday condemned Friday’s attack on Gurdwara Nankana Sahib in Pakistan.
While the ruling BJP said the incident justified its decision to bring in the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA), Opposition leaders called on Prime Minister Narendra Modi and the government to take up the issue with Pakistan to ensure the safety of the shrine and pilgrims.
ABOUT NANKANA SAHIB
Nankana Sahib is a city and capital of Nankana Sahib District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
It is named after the first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak, who was born in the city and first began preaching here.
Nankana Sahib is the most important religious site for the Sikh religion.
NEWS: Naresh Koch became the first “declared foreigner” to die in captivity in the New Year. He belonged to the Koch-Rajbongshi community that has been demanding the Scheduled Tribe status along with five other indigenous communities in Assam.
What are detention centres?
They are places designated to keep illegal migrants (people who have entered a country without necessary documents) once they are detected by the authorities till the time their nationality is confirmed and they are deported to the country of their origin.
Does India have detention centres?
Yes, there are 6 detention centres in Assam. The combined capacity of these temporary centres is 1000, but the centres are overcrowded.
How were the detention centres set up in Assam?
Detention centres were set up in Assam after the Union government authorized the state to do so under the provisions of Section 3(2)(e) of the Foreigners’ Act, 1946 and Para 11(2) of the Foreigners Order, 1948.
A detailed manual on ‘model detention centres’ has been circulated to all the states.
As per the manual:
- States require no specific approval from the Centre to set up these centres.
- These centres should be setup outside the jail premises.
- Their numbers and size should be decided by the states keeping in view the actual number of foreigners to be housed as well as the progress in deportation proceedings.
AIR QUALITY INDEX:
The air quality of the city continued to be in the ‘very poor’ category on Saturday and may slightly improve over the next few days, said forecasting agency SAFAR.
The Air Quality Index (AQI) on Saturday was 334, slightly down from Friday’s 352, as per Central Pollution Control Board bulletin. The average level of PM2.5 was 197.4 ug/m3, over three times the safe limit of 60 ug/m3, in Delhi-NCR at 6 p.m.
ABOUT AIR QUALITY INDEX:
Air Quality Index is a number used by the government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted air currently is and how polluted it is expected to become.
There are six AQI categories, namely Good (0-50), Satisfactory (51-100), Moderately polluted (101-200), Poor (201-300), Very Poor (301-400), and Severe (401-500).
AQI considers eight pollutants
- NH3, and
Air Quality Index was launched in 2014 by Central Pollution Control Board under Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change.
YAMUNA RIVER SYSTEM
About Yamuna River System :- Yamunotri, which is north of Haridwar in the Himalayan Mountains, is the source of the Yamuna. The river Yamuna, a major tributary of river Ganges, originates from the Yamunotri glacier near Banderpoonch peaks.
The Tons is the largest tributary of the Yamuna.
Tributaries of River Yamuna:-
CHILIKA LAKE :-
The Chilika Development Authority (CDA) said it expects the number of migratory birds flocking to Chilika to cross the one-million mark for the second consecutive year in 2020.
The Nalabana Bird Sanctuary was notified in 1987. It has one of the largest congregations with 3,74,752 birds of 114 species.
ABOUT CHILIKA LAKE
CHILIKA LAKE is largest coastal lagoon of India.
Second largest coastal lagoon of world after New Caledonian Barrier Reef in
It was the first wetland site to be designated under Ramsar Convention from
India in 1981.
The Miyawaki method of afforestation, which has revolutionised the concept of urban afforestation by turning backyards into mini-forests, is to add green cover on government office premises, residential complexes, school premises, and puramboke land in Kerala.
The government intervention comes in the wake of the highly successful technique, pioneered by Japanese botanist Akira Miyawaki, and adopted in the State by individuals to increase the green cover in urban and semi-urban areas.
By promoting natural vegetation on land destroyed by natural calamities and due to human activity along the Japanese coastline, Miyawaki managed to raise mini-forests. The replication of the model across Kerala, which has suffered floods, landslips and soil erosion, assumes significance given the Rebuild Kerala initiative.
The Miyawaki afforestation method has been adopted in 15 places with the support of the Nature’s Green Guardians Foundation (NGGF), an NGO.
- “A pit has to be dug, and its dimensions depend on the available space. Before digging the pit, the list of tree species should be chosen judiciously. As there is very little space to work around with, trees with varying heights should be chosen. For example, if a tree that can grow up to 30 feet is planted, the next one should be considerably shorter. This ensures the branches don’t clash,” says Krishna Kumar Suresh.
- Fill it with one layer of compost, followed by a layer of natural waste such as bagasse and coconut shells and then top it with a layer of red soil.
- Plant the saplings following interval and tree height specifications.
- The whole process can be completed in two to three weeks. The saplings have to be maintained regularly for a year.
PM JAN AAROGYA PROGRAMME
The Centre’s ambitious healthcare insurance scheme — Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY) — under the National Health Authority (NHA) has noted that as per details provided by the States, more than 390 hospitals of the over 19,000 empanelled across nine States have been either served show cause notices, suspended, or de-empanelled, for alleged fraud.
Of these, 171 hospitals have been de-empanelled and FIRs have been lodged against six hospitals in Uttarakhand and Jharkhand. The quantum of penalties levied on the listed hospitals is more than ₹4.6 crore.
ABOUT PM JAN AAROGYA PROGRAMME
PM Jan Aarogya Programme that aims to cover 10 crore families for hospitalization expenses up to 5 lakh rupees.
This is the “world’s largest government funded healthcare program” targeting more than 50 crore beneficiaries.
BENEFITS UNDER THE SCHEME:
- Ayushman Bharat- Pradhan Mantri Jan ArogyaYojana (PMJAY) will provide a cover of up to Rs. 5 lakhs per family per year, for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization.
- Over 10.74 crore vulnerable entitled families (approximately 50 crore beneficiaries) will be eligible for these benefits.
- PMJAY will provide cashless and paperless access to services for the beneficiary at the point of service.
- PMJAY will help reduce catastrophic expenditure for hospitalizations, which impoverishes people and will help mitigate the financial risk arising out of catastrophic health episodes.
- Entitled families will be able to use the quality health services they need without facing financial hardships.
- When fully implemented, PMJAY will become the world’s largest fully government-financed health protection scheme. It is a visionary step towards advancing the agenda of Universal Health Coverage (UHC).
FEATURES OF THE SCHEME
Ayushman Bharat is a progression towards promotive, preventive, curative, palliative and rehabilitative aspects of Universal Healthcare through access of Health and Wellness Centers (HWCs) at the primary level and provision of financial protection for accessing curative care at the secondary and tertiary levels through engagement with both public and private sector.
It adopts a continuum of care approach, comprising of two inter-related components: Creation of 1,50,000 Health and Wellness Centres which will bring health care closer to the homes of the people.
These centres will provide Comprehensive Primary Health Care (CPHC), covering both maternal and child health services and non-communicable diseases, including free essential drugs and diagnostic services. The first Health and Wellness Centre was launched by the Prime Minister at Jangla, Bijapur, Chhatisgarh on 14th April 2018.
The second component is the Pradhan Mantri Jan ArogyaYojana (PMJAY) which provides health protection cover to poor and vulnerable families for secondary and tertiary care.
The Health and Wellness Centres will play a critical role in creating awareness about PMJAY, screening for non-communicable diseases, follow-up of hospitalization cases among others. The features of the scheme are as follows.
Pradhan Mantri Jan ArogyaYojana: Financial protection from catastrophic expenditure:
- 71st Round of National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) has found 85.9% of rural households and 82% of urban households have no access to healthcare insurance/assurance. More than 17% of Indian population spend at least 10% of household budgets for health services. Catastrophic healthcare related expenditure pushes families into debt, with more than 24% households in rural India and 18% population in urban area have met their healthcare expenses through some sort of borrowings.
- PMJAY primarily targets the poor, deprived rural families and identified occupational category of urban workers’ families as per the latest Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) data for both rural and urban areas as well as the active families under the RashtriyaSwasthyaBimaYojana (RSBY).
- Approximately 10.74 crore identified families (approximately 50 crore beneficiaries) will be entitled to get the benefits. There is no cap on family size and age as well as restriction on pre-existing conditions.
Pradhan Mantri Jan ArogyaYojana: Hospitalization cover from inpatient care to post hospitalisation care:
- The objectives of the Yojana are to reduce out of pocket hospitalisation expenses, fulfil unmet needs and improve access of identified families to quality inpatient care and day care surgeries.
- The Yojana will provide a coverage up to Rs. 5,00,000 per family per year, for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization through a network of Empanelled Health Care Providers (EHCP).
- The EHCP network will provide cashless and paperless access to services for the beneficiaries at the both public and private hospitals.
- The services will include 1350 procedures covering pre and post hospitalization, diagnostics, medicines etc.
- The Yojana beneficiaries will be able to move across borders and access services across the country through the provider network seamlessly.
The Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) has demanded that a Seva Dal booklet containing “insulting” remarks against Hindutva ideologue Vinayak Savarkar be withdrawn.
The booklet issued this week claimed Vinayak Savarkar and Mahatma Gandhi’s assassin Nathuram Godse were in a physical relationship. The NCP on Saturday said this was not a fair claim to make when the persons in question was not alive. The Congress and the NCP are coalition partners in Maharashtra in the Maha Vikas Aghadi government.
ABOUT V D SAVARKAR
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was an independence activist, politican, lawyer, writer and formulator of Hindutva philosophy.
He was member of the Hindu Mahasabha, India House and founded Abhinava Bharat society and Free India Society.
He wrote the famous book Indian War of Independence.
Arrested in 1910 for his connections with the revolutionary group India House.
In 1921 under restrictions after signing a plea for clemency he was released on the condition that he renounce revolutionary activities.
He opposed the Quit India Movement.
Airport at Port Blair was renamed as Veer Savarkar International Aiport in 2002.
Leaders of the BJP’s Assam unit said here on Saturday that the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) was designed to undo the damage done by the leaders of the Assam agitation who settled for 1971 as the cut-off year for accepting foreigners instead of 1951.
Former Chief Minister Prafulla Kumar Mahanta was the president of the All Assam Students’ Union (AASU) when it led the agitation from 1979 to 1985. That stir ended with the signing of the Assam Accord, which prescribed deportation of “illegal immigrants” who entered the State after March 24, 1971.
ABOUT ASSAM ACCORD
It was signed in the presence of the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in New Delhi on 15 August 1985. It followed a six-year agitation that started in 1979. Led by the All Assam Students’ Union (AASU), the protestors demanded the identification and deportation of all illegal foreigners – predominantly Bangladeshi immigrants.
According to the Assam Accord, the Government of India agreed to secure the international border against future infiltration by the “erection of physical barriers like walls, barbed wire fencing and other obstacles at appropriate places” and deploying a patrol by security forces on land and river routes all along the international Bangladesh-India border.
An ongoing tussle between the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI), Nippon India Mutual Fund and Credit Suisse is likely to head to the Securities Appellate Tribunal (SAT) after the insurance watchdog declared that the pledging of shares of Reliance General Insurance with the two entities was in violation of the law.
The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) is an autonomous, statutory body tasked with regulating and promoting the insurance and re-insurance industries in India.
It was constituted by the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999, an Act of Parliament passed by the Government of India.
The agency’s headquarters are in Hyderabad, Telangana.
SECURITIES APPELLATE TRIBUNAL
- Securities Appellate Tribunal is a statutory body established under the provisions of Section 15K of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992
- Its task is to hear and dispose of appeals against orders passed by the Securities and Exchange Board of India or by an adjudicating officer under the Act
- It also exercise jurisdiction, powers and authority conferred on the Tribunal by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force.
- It covers the whole of India.
ISSUE: IS THE WEST ASIA HEADED FOR WAR
WHY FEAR OF WAR?
Relations between the United States and Iran hit a dangerous new low on Friday, January 3, 2020, when Major Gen. Qassem Soleimani, a top Iranian commander, was killed in a U.S. air strike outside Baghdad airport. Gen. Soleimani, who the U.S. held responsible for the deaths of scores of American soldiers in Iraq, was the commander of the Qods Force, the external intelligence and security unit of the elite Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC). A furious Iran has now vowed a forceful revenge for the killing, raising the risks of a direct war between the U.S. and Iran to an all-time high.
What is Iraq’s position?
Iraq is caught between the U.S. and Iran. The U.S., since Saddam Hussein’s regime was toppled, has been a major security partner of Iraq. At present, America has about 5,000 troops deployed in various parts of Iraq. On the other side, Iran is Iraq’s more powerful neighbour. Most Shia political parties and leaders in Iraq have deep, historical ties with the Iranian regime. Also, the Shia militias are a parallel military force; it takes its orders directly from Tehran rather than from Baghdad. Thus, Iraq cannot totally ignore Iran. The U.S.’s unilateral use of air power within Iraq targeting Iraqi militias without the permission of the government has upset Baghdad. The Iraqi government had strongly condemned the U.S. air strikes on Kataib Hezbollah; a huge crowd participated in the siege of the American Embassy. The assassination of Gen. Soleimani triggered instant street protests in Iraq, with protesters chanting “Death to America”.
It is a complex situation. The Iraqi government is being pushed to a point where it has to choose between Iran and the U.S. And given the intricacy of Iraq’s domestic power dynamics and the influence Iran wields over the Iraqi polity, Baghdad is unlikely to antagonise a wounded Tehran.
So is war inevitable?
It depends on Iran’s response. After killing Gen. Soleimani, the U.S. has said it is committed to de-escalation. The U.S. is saying that it does not want the situation to spiral out of control. But for Iran, this is not just another attack. Gen. Soleimani was one of the top generals of the regime.
Self-preservation or protecting the lives of the top leaders is the primary objective of any regime. A failure means a hole in its deterrence.
If Iran’s deterrence capacity prevented previous American Presidents from taking such a step, Mr. Trump decided to ignore that, taking a huge risk. So it is upon Iran not only to take revenge for Gen. Soleimani’s death but also to bolster its deterrence. If not, there is no guarantee that the U.S. or Israel would not carry out attacks in the future, targeting other Iranian leaders. Iran cannot afford to take such a risk.
HOW CAN IRAN ATTACK?
Iran has multiple options for retaliation. It can target U.S. troops in Iraq, either using mid-range rockets or ballistic missiles. Iran-backed proxies in the region, from Hezbollah in Lebanon to the PMF in Iraq and the Houthis in Yemen, can carry out attacks, targeting America’s allies and assets.
The decision is up to the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. He could also wait for an appropriate time, plan and execute a surprise asymmetric attack — which is Iran’s main military response model — on the Americans in the region.
The risk is that an Iranian attack could trigger a cycle of violence, with both sides targeting each other in West Asia. That is the path to war.
ISSUE: WHY HAS US CRIPPLED THE FUNCTIONING OF WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION?
WHAT US HAS DONE?
USA has paralysed the World Trade Organization’s Appellate Body, which acts as a supreme court for international trade.
In December 2019, the U.S. chose to spike the Appellate Body by starving funds for its functioning.
It also stalled the selection process for filling six vacancies at the Appellate Body.
Consequently, the Appellate Body is left with only one member, who will not be able to deliver any rulings on pending trade disputes — a minimum of three members is required to adjudicate any dispute.
What is the World Trade Organization’s Appellate Body?
Global trade disputes are complex and difficult to resolve. For proper enforcement of trade rules, a binding, two-stage dispute settlement system was established at the World Trade Organization in the 1990s. The Appellate Body is the scaffolding of the dispute settlement system, with seven standing members.
Appellate Body’s decisions are final and adopted within 30 days by the dispute settlement body. Sanctions can be imposed on a member in case of its failure to comply with the Appellate Body’s rulings.
The establishment of the Appellate Body has given teeth and credibility to the rules-based multilateral trading system. Moreover, it provided security and predictability in the multilateral trading system. But the U.S. chose to spike the highest appeals body for global trade disputes by alleging that it has gone astray.
Why did the U.S. choose to strangulate the Appellate Body?
Appellate Body has posed hurdles to the U.S. for adopting unilateral measures. Several U.S. provisions for imposing countervailing and anti-dumping measures were found to be inconsistent with core provisions of the WTO agreements.
While the U.S. has accepted favourable rulings that served its interests in global trade, it raised intransigent concerns about adverse decisions that struck down the U.S.’s trade measures.
Washington has repeatedly accused the Appellate Body of allegedly straying away from the dispute settlement understanding (DSU) in several disputes involving the U.S.’ measures that were challenged by other members. It has maintained that the Appellate Body failed to issue rulings within the 90-day deadline.
The U.S. says the Appellate Body’s rulings failed to adhere to the provisions in the dispute settlement understanding in cases involving countervailing (anti-subsidy) and anti-dumping measures based on the zeroing methodology.
It argues that the the Appellate Body’s decisions “assert a precedential value for its reports…”.
How will the U.S.’s unilateral stand affect developing countries?
Undoubtedly, it is a tremendous loss for the majority of WTO members who are all developing and poor countries. Clearly, they “lack the political and economic clout to enforce their rights and protect their interests in a system governed by power and not rules,” said Mr. Deepak.
What is the future for an organisation that will not be able to enforce rules?
The strangulation of the Appellate Body is a reflection of unilateralism and protectionism that are on a sharp rise. China has said: “It is therefore not surprising that someone attempts to use its might rather than WTO adjudications to change trade polices of other Members.” The absence of the Appellate Body will create a jungle raj and paves the way for a steep descent into the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 1947 rules.
ISSUE: TUSSLE OVER BELGAVI
WHY IN NEWS?
Last month, Maharashtra Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray appointed Ministers Chaggan Bhujbal and Eknath Shinde as coordinators to oversee the State government’s efforts to expedite the case related to the boundary dispute with Karnataka.
What is the controversy?
In 1957, slighted by the implementation of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, Maharashtra demanded readjustment of its border with Karnataka. It invoked Section 21(2)(b) of the Act, and submitted a memorandum to the Ministry of Home Affairs stating its objection to Marathi-speaking areas being added to Karnataka.
It claimed an area of 2,806 square miles that involved 814 villages, and three urban settlements of Belagavi, Karwar and Nippani with a total population of about 6.7 lakh, all part of the Mumbai Presidency before Independence.
The villages are spread across Belagavi and Uttar Kannada in north-western Karnataka, and Bidar and Gulbarga districts in north-eastern Karnataka — all bordering Maharashtra.
What was the basis of Maharashtra’s claim?
Maharashtra’s claim to seek the readjustment of its border was on the basis of contiguity, relative linguistic majority and wishes of the people. If the claim over Belagavi and surrounding areas was based on Marathi speaking people and linguistic homogeneity, it laid its claim over Karwar and Supa where Konkani is spoken by citing Konkani as a dialect of Marathi.
What is Karnataka’s position?
Karnataka has argued that the settlement of boundaries as per the States Reorganisation Act is final. The State argues that the issue would reopen border issues that have not been contemplated under the Act, and that such a demand should not be permitted. Initially, Karnataka was open to adjusting the border in the 10 mile belt from the drawn boundary.
Did the States make an effort to find a solution?
In 1960, both States agreed to set up a four-man committee with two representatives from each State. Except on the issue of contiguity, the committee could not arrive at a unanimous decision, and respective representatives submitted reports to their government. Between the 1960s and 1980s, the Chief Ministers of Karnataka and Maharashtra have met several times to find a solution but with no avail.
How has the Union Government responded?
Under sustained pressure from Maharashtra, in 1966, the Centre announced setting up a one-man commission under the former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India, Meher Chand Mahajan, to look into border issues between Karnataka (then Mysore state) and Maharashtra. The commission was also asked to look into Karnataka’s demand for integration of Kannada-speaking areas in Kasargod in Kerala.
While Maharashtra reiterated its demand, Karnataka sought areas in Kolhapur, Sholapur and Sangli districts from Maharashtra, and Kasargod from Kerala. The commission received more than 2,200 memoranda and met over 7,500 people. It submitted its report to the Union Government in 1967. The commission’s report was placed in Parliament in 1972. The commission rejected Maharashtra’s claim over Belagavi city while recommending transfer of about 260 villages to Maharashtra and about 250 villages in Maharashtra to Karnataka. Maharashtra said the report was inconsistent and an unfair application of its own principle. It also said that the report was not a final word on the issue. Karnataka, however, agreed to the report.
PROBLEM OF MALNUTRITION
After years of slow and somewhat tentative action to acknowledge, understand and act on the challenge of undernutrition, India’s National Nutrition Mission brought focus and ambition and a range of actions followed. National and State governments were mobilised, district administrators engaged, the private sector mobilised in its own way, while civil society continued to push for accountability and action.
What are some challenges that face India on the nutrition front as we approach the decade of action for the SDGs?
First, work led by ICMR and published recently in the Lancet Global Health shows that progress in maternal and child undernutrition varies tremendously by State. It also highlights how malnutrition contributes the most to child deaths as well as disability in adults. Saving lives of children under five in India will require a steady focus on nutrition.
Second, new data on malnutrition among children from the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey highlights how challenges of overweight, obesity and even early non-communicable disease, are no longer adult challenges. About 10% of children under 19 years have pre-diabetes.
Coherence is needed in areas of public policy across multiple ministries – incentivising the cultivation and consumption of a range of food commodities; using the levers of government financing to buy better nutrition (not just more calories) in programmes such as the PDS, ICDS and school meals; ensuring optimal healthcare of adolescents, pregnant women and young children; restricting the marketing of unhealthy foods and drinks; and expanding efforts to improve nutrition literacy.
Third, India’s adults also bear a tremendous double burden of malnutrition. Recent work from IFPRI and Emory University, has highlighted how economic progress is a double-edged sword – reducing underweight among women while also exacerbating the challenge of overweight among others. Today, some districts in India have levels of overweight that are as high as 40%.
Fourth, a range of studies published by researchers in India and abroad, demonstrate that social determinants related to gender, education, sanitation and poverty are key drivers of stunting and undernutrition. Early-life undernutrition is an important risk factor for later-life adult disease, along with food environments, physical activity and preventive healthcare.
Programmes and policy
Today, India’s efforts in tackling malnutrition have already come a long way – a range of programmes and policies have been launched against child undernutrition (POSHAN Abhiyaan), anaemia (Anaemia Mukt Bharat) and healthy eating (Eat Right India). However, malnutrition does not exist in isolation – individuals, households and communities share multiple forms of malnutrition. Therefore, it is imperative that policy efforts also come together under a common umbrella and an overarching body is needed to ensure convergence.
Given the diversity and complexity of the challenge, we call for an even sharper evidence-based and data-driven approach to diagnosing the challenge of malnutrition in India’s states, districts and communities. We call for a nuanced understanding of the risk factors that contribute the most to the multiple burdens. And we call for the use of data on the reach of programmes and interventions to identify critical gaps and fuel rapid action.
The underlying data that is now available to undertake these assessments, such as the Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey, must be made available to the scientific community. Silos in data systems should be broken and community health-workers and anganwadi workers provided feedback on areas of good performance and where improvement is needed.
Addressing the double burden of malnutrition will take an unrelenting focus in coming years – the challenge is complex, the actions needed must come from different sectors, and data and accountability mechanisms must absolutely inform what happens next. The consequences of poor nutrition are too broad, too deep and too costly for society to ignore.