As per the Indian Constitution Article 12 says that:-
Definition In this part, unless the context otherwise requires, the State includes
- the Government and Parliament of India and
- the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and
- all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India
In 1933 Montevideo Conference was held.
As Per Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention :-
The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications:
|a.||a permanent population;|
|b.||a defined territory;|
|d.||capacity to enter into relations with the other states.|
The federal state shall constitute a sole person in the eyes of international law.
Now UPSC 2021 asked the Question :-
Which one of the following best defines the term “State”?
(a) A community of persons permanently occupying a definite territory independent of external control and possessing an organized government.
(b) A politically organized people of a definite territory and possessing an authority to govern them, maintain law and order, protect their natural rights and safeguard their means of sustenance.
(C) A number of persons who have been living in a definite territory for a very long time with their own culture, tradition and government.
(d) A society permanently living in a definite with a central authority, an executive responsible to the central authority and an independent judiciary.
Only Option A satisfies all the 4 conditions for being called the state and thus the Answer will be A