Definition of State

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As per the Indian Constitution Article 12 says that:-

Definition In this part, unless the context otherwise requires, the State includes

  • the Government and Parliament of India and
  • the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and
  • all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India

In 1933 Montevideo Conference was held.

As Per Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention :-

Article 1

The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications:

a.a permanent population;
b.a defined territory;
c.government; and
d.capacity to enter into relations with the other states.
Necessary elements of State

Article 2

The federal state shall constitute a sole person in the eyes of international law.

Now UPSC 2021 asked the Question :-

Which one of the following best defines the term “State”?

UPSC-2021 Question


(a) A community of persons permanently occupying a definite territory independent of external control and possessing an organized government.

(b) A politically organized people of a definite territory and possessing an authority to govern them, maintain law and order, protect their natural rights and safeguard their means of sustenance.

(C) A number of persons who have been living in a definite territory for a very long time with their own culture, tradition and government.

(d) A society permanently living in a definite with a central authority, an executive responsible to the central authority and an independent judiciary.

Only Option A satisfies all the 4 conditions for being called the state and thus the Answer will be A

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