Indian Express 06th December 2019

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1) Editorial :- Two Nation Citizen 

What’s the biggest problem with the CAB, 2019 :- citizenship will be defined, for some men, women and children, in religious terms. That is the terrible — and terrifying — burden of the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019.

By amending the Citizenship Act 1955 to grant citizenship to illegal immigrants who are Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis, and Christians from Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Pakistan, while shutting India’s doors on all those who are Muslim, because they are Muslim, the proposed law violates the fundamental right to equality assured by the Indian Constitution, and its explicit prohibition of discrimination on the basis of religion.

It also undermines the very foundation of the Republic in a spacious and plural idea that was nurtured and nourished by the freedom movement, an idea that refuted the two-nation theory that led to the creation of Pakistan.

If the citizenship bill is born of empathy for the vulnerable and the persecuted, why not extend it to the Rohingya from Myanmar, or the Ahmadiyas from Pakistan?

2)Explained: Data Protection Bill — issues, debate

India’s first attempt to domestically legislate on the topic of Data transfer, the Personal Data Protection (PDP) Bill, 2019, has been approved by the Cabinet.

Earlier committee on Data protection was headed by justice B.N Srikrishna.

What is Data :- Data is any collection of information that is stored in a way so computers can easily read them

Who is a Data Principal: The individual whose data is being stored and processed is called the data principal in the PDP Bill.

Who handles our data, and how?

Data is collected and handled by entities called data fiduciaries. While the fiduciary controls how and why data is processed, the processing itself may be by a third party, the data processo

The physical attributes of data — where data is stored, where it is sent, where it is turned into something useful — are called data flows.

Some types of personal data are considered sensitive personal data (SPD), which the Bill defines as financial, health, sexual orientation, biometric, genetic, transgender status, caste, religious belief, and more. Another subset is critical personal data. The government at any time can deem something critical, and has given examples as military or national security data.

How is the bill difference from B.N Srikrishna version :- 

The draft had said all fiduciaries must store a copy of all personal data in India — a provision that was criticised by foreign technology companies that store most of Indians’ data abroad and even some domestic startups that were worried about a foreign backlash. The approved Bill removes this stipulation, only requiring individual consent for data transfer abroad. Similar to the draft, however, the Bill still requires sensitive personal data to be stored only in India. It can be processed abroad only under certain conditions including approval of a Data Protection Agency (DPA). The final category of critical personal data must be stored and processed in India.

The Bill mandates fiduciaries to give the government any non-personal data when demanded. Non-personal data refers to anonymised data, such as traffic patterns or demographic data. The previous draft did not apply to this type of data, which many companies use to fund their business model.

 

Other important Features of the Bill :- The Bill includes exemptions for processing data without an individual’s consent for “reasonable purposes”,

The Bill calls for the creation of an independent regulator DPA, which will oversee assessments and audits and definition making. Each company will have a Data Protection Officer (DPO).

What are the two sides of the debate?

For data localisation:-

As per. Govt officials localisation will  help law-enforcement access data for investigations and enforcement.

In addition, proponents highlight security against foreign attacks and surveillance, harkening notions of data sovereignty.

The government doubled down on this argument after news broke that 121 Indian citizens’ WhatsApp accounts were hacked by an Israeli software called Pegasus.

Against the Bill:-

Civil society groups have criticised the open-ended exceptions given to the government in the Bill, allowing for surveillance. Moreover, some lawyers contend that security and government access are not achieved by localisation. Even if the data is stored in the country, the encryption keys may still be out of reach of national agencies.

Technology giants like Facebook and Google and their industry bodies, especially those with significant ties to the US, have slung heavy backlash. Many are concerned with a fractured Internet (or a “splinternet”), where the domino effect of protectionist policy will lead to other countries following suit.

Opponents say protectionism may backfire on India’s own young startups that are attempting global growth, or on larger firms that process foreign data in India, such as Tata Consulting Services and Wipro.

3)Explained: What is Blue Water Force?

On December 4, Navy Day.

Blue Water Navy: A Blue Water Navy is one that has the capacity to project itself over a much bigger maritime area than its maritime borders. Simply put, it is a Navy that can go into the vast, deep oceans of the world. However, while most navies have the capacity to send ships into the deep oceans, a Blue Water Force is able to carry out operations far from its borders, without being required to return to its home port to refuel or re-stock.

While it is evident that Blue Water navies belong to the most powerful nations, there is no one internationally agreed upon definition.

According to the Indian Maritime Doctrine, 2015, “The ability to undertake distant operations distinguishes a blue-water navy from a brown-water force.

 

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