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Indian Express Explained 10/05/2020

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1) Explained: Why India needs a Project Dolphin:- The National Ganga Council (NGC), is headed by Prime Minister. The government is planning to launch a programme called “Project Dolphin”, along the lines of “Project Tiger” to enhance the population of these dolphins

The status of Gangetic dolphins in India:- The Gangetic river dolphins were officially discovered in 1801 and are one of the oldest creatures in the world along with some species of turtles, crocodiles and sharks, according to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). They once lived in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh, but are now mostly extinct from many of its early distribution ranges, as per WWF.

In 2009, the Gangetic dolphins were declared India’s National Aquatic animal during the first meeting of the erstwhile National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) and it is placed under the “endangered” category by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 

States in India :  they are distributed across seven states in India: Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.

What are some of the efforts made in India to protect the dolphins?:-

Some of the efforts made to preserve and increase the numbers of these dolphins include the setting up of the Conservation Action Plan for the Gangetic Dolphin (2010-2020), which has identified threats to Gangetic dolphins and impact of river traffic, irrigation canals and depletion of prey-base on dolphin populations.

Additionally, the Gangetic dolphins have been included in Schedule -I of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, which means they have the highest degree of protection against hunting. They are also one among the 21 species identified under the centrally sponsored scheme, “Development of Wildlife Habitat”.

2) Gender Parity Index:-

GPI is released by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as a part of its Global Education Monitoring Report.

Definition

Ratio of female to male values of a given indicator.

Calculation method

Divide the female value of an indicator by the male value of the same indicator.

Data required

Female and male values of the given indicator.

Interpretation

GPI equal to 1 indicates parity between females and males. In general, a value less than 1 indicates a disparity in favour of boys and a value greater than 1 indicates a disparity in favour of girls. However, the interpretation should be in the other way round for indicators that should ideally approach 0% (e.g. repetition, dropout, illiteracy rates, etc). In these cases, a GPI of less than 1 indicates a disparity in favour of girls and a value greater than 1 indicates a disparity in favour of boys.

Limitations

This index does not show whether improvement or regression is due to the performance of one of the gender groups (boys or girls). Interpretation of the GPI requires trend analysis of the underlying indicators.

Purpose

GPI measures progress towards gender parity in education participation and/or learning opportunities available for girls in relation to those available to boys.

Types of disaggregation

By level of education and by type of institution (private/public).

Other than This Global Gender Gap Report is Released by : WEF ( World Economic Forum).

Gender Inequality Index:– The Gender Inequality Index is an index for measurement of gender disparity that was introduced in the 2010 Human Development Report 20th anniversary edition by the United Nations Development Programme.

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