Indian Express 7th December 2019

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1)Explained: Why ‘carbon market’ is debated

Issue :Climate conference in Madrid, had to resolve one thing — disagreements over setting up a new carbon market — remains contentious as ever.

When did New Carbon market agenda came:- 

Carbon markets, which allow for buying and selling of carbon emissions with the objective of reducing global emissions, is an unfinished agenda from last year’s meeting in Katowice, Poland.

How the Mechanism works :- If a developed country is unable to meet its reduction target, it can provide money or technology to a developing country  like India for emission reduction, and then claim the reduction of emission as its own.

Alternatively, a country can trade it’s carbon credits . A carbon credit is fundamentally a permit—issued by a government or other regulatory body—that allows its holder to burn a specified amount of hydrocarbon fuel over a specified period. Now suppose a country was issued 10 carbon credits and it emitted only 7 credits then that means it still has 3 carbon credits.

Another party, struggling to meet its own targets, can buy these 3 extra credits and show these as their own.

Carbon markets also existed under the Kyoto Protocol, which is being replaced by the Paris Agreement next year.

The provisions relating to setting up a new carbon market are described in Article 6 of the Paris Agreement.

Article 6.4 talks about a wider carbon market in which reductions can be bought and sold by anyone.

What is contentious:- The main tussle is over two or three broad issues — what happens to carbon credits earned in the Kyoto regime but not yet sold, what constitutes double-counting, and transparency mechanisms to be put in place.

i)Developing countries have several million unsold CERs (certified emission reductions), each referring to one tonne of carbon dioxide-equivalent emission reduced, from the Kyoto regime.

India has about 750 million unsold CERs and, along with other similarly placed countries, wants these credits to be valid in the new mechanism too.

iii)The second issue is that of double counting, or corresponding adjustment. The new mechanism envisages carbon credits as commodities that can be traded multiple times among countries or private parties. It is important to ensure that in this process, credits are not counted at more than one place; whoever sells carbon credits should not simultaneously count these as emissions it has reduced.

With the world doing far less than what is required to prevent catastrophic impacts of climate change, the markets can be an important tool to close the action gap.

2)How to inspect dead bodies without cutting them up:- 

Issue : Virtual Autopsey

It is likely to be possible soon to carry out autopsies without dissecting the body.

India will be the first country in South and Southeast Asia to carry out these “virtual autopsies”.

What is a virtual autopsy?

In a virtual autopsy, doctors use radiation to examine the innards to reach a conclusion about the cause of death. A CT or an MRI machine could be used, in the same way that they are used to scan a living human’s body.


Virtopsy can be employed as an alternative to standard autopsies for broad and systemic examination of the whole body as it is less time consuming, aids better diagnosis, and renders respect to religious sentiments.” one major issue in earlier method of cutting bodies was making the family uncomfortable.

A virtual autopsy is also faster than a traditional one — 30 minutes against 2½ hours.

Is this currently practised anywhere?

According to a 2016 article titled ‘The Rise of Virtual Autopsy’ in the Journal of Forensic Pathology, virtual autopsy began in Sweden, but is now a “standard technique” in major centres in Japan, the US, Australia, and many European countries.

3)Explained 3 :-388 wildlife crime cases last year, over 20% were about leopards

In 2018, 388 cases of wildlife-related crimes were registered under the Wildlife Protection Act.

In nearly one in every three cases —123 of the 388 — the species involved was leopards or tigers.

Just five species accounted for two in every three cases — 259 of 388 — with leopards (21%), scheduled birds (16%) and tigers (11%) being followed by star tortoises or turtles (10%) and deer (9%). Ten species accounted for over 90% of the cases, the other five being elephants (7%), snakes (5%), rhinos (4%), mongooses (4%) and pangolins (a little under 4%).

The ministry said a Wildlife Crime Control Bureau has been set up to gather intelligence about poaching and unlawful activity in wildlife trade in wild animals and animal articles.


4)Editorial :- Kartarpur Corridor shows the way for reconciliation between India and Pakistan

In a more significant comment, he linked the inauguration of the kartarpur corridor to the “Fall of the Berlin Wall”, since that day, November 9, marked the 30th anniversary of the event that accelerated the end of the Cold War. “Two different streams had come together and taken the pledge to make a new beginning.

Similarly between the Two events :-

In Germany, the Berlin Wall fell because tens of thousands of ordinary citizens, desiring the reunification of the two Germanys, dealt hammer-blows on it. Something similar, though not identical, has happened between India and Pakistan.

The Kartarpur Sahib Corridor has opened mainly because of the intense desire of the people, mostly Sikhs. Their prayers acted as silent “hammer-blows”, which the leaders could not ignore.

P.M was very accurate when he said India and Pakistan need coordinated efforts if peace is to prevail between the two nations.

5)Editorials :- Criminals in uniform: Encounters should not be encouraged by political leadership

What are the views of author on recent Hyderabad Encounter.

It is a classic debate of Due process vs Instant Justice.

Justice delayed is justice denied but justice hurried is justice burried. 

As per author this encounter is lawlessness.

It is exactly this atmosphere of lawlessness that presently prevails. The middle-class, who form the bulk of the opinion makers in any country, put pressure — subtle or overt — on the governments of the day to preserve their sense of security in any way possible.

Since the judicial system does not operate as smoothly as it used to in the past, popularly elected governments, in turn, put pressure on the police forces to use other methods to solve the problem.

Third-degree methods adopted by the police and the fake encounters which have become a part of the police and public lexicon, are short-cuts that have become accepted, and almost formalised, because of public support. A beleaguered society that knows not what ails the system, openly supports short-cuts adopted by the police to circumvent the failures of the judicial process.

The public is unaware of the fall-out of this new practice of fake encounters: A whole new breed of criminals is born. They are known as “encounter specialists”.

Until the system of judicial process is put back on the rails, these short-cuts will continue.

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