1)Explained: What is Antifa, the group that Trump wants to declare a terrorist organisation
Background:- As massive protests following the death of George Floyd continued to rock the United States, President Donald Trump on Sunday announced that the far-left group Antifa would be designated as a terrorist organisation by his government. “The United States of America will be designating ANTIFA as a Terrorist Organization.
ANTIFA : THE GROUP:- It shot into prominence following the election of President Trump in 2016, with violence marking some of its protests and demonstrations.
Antifa members typically dress in black and often wear a mask at their demonstrations, and follow far-left ideologies such as anti-capitalism. They take up causes such as LGBTQ and indigenous rights. What makes them stand out is the violence.
Criticising mainstream liberal politicians for not doing enough, Antifa members have often physically confronted their conservative opponents on the streets, although the group also participates in non-violent protests. Apart from public counter-protests, Antifa members run websites that track white extremist and ultra-right groups.
2) Civil Aviation in India :-
Context: After a two-month long shutdown due COVID-19, domestic flights were allowed to resume operations in a staggered manner from May 25.
Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik (UDAN) philosophy:
Fundamental and paradigmatic shift in civil aviation: Changed from an elitist mode of transportation to one which is within the reach of all Indians.
Reach of Civil Aviation Before COVID-19:
- Pre-COVID India was the third largest domestic aviation market in the world with approximately 140 million passengers travelling annually.
- The country was poised to become the third-largest overall market in three years.
- We were experiencing double-digit growth when the headwinds of the COVID crisis hit us.
Efforts of Civil aviation during COVID-19:
The factors which need to be addressed before restarting international flights:
There is a need to proactively engage and support the aviation sector. The government needs to ensure that the Indian aviation sector comes out from this crisis stronger.
3) Aatma Nirbhar Bharat and the Fiscal Stimulus :-
Context –IMF’s report –Policy Tracker has appreciated India’s fiscal stimulus measures taken under Atma Nirbhar mission
Following are the arguments based on which India’s fiscal stimulus has been applauded:
1.Fiscal measures adopted by other countries – Among developing nations, India has one of the highest fiscal stimulus for reviving the economy.
|Developed Nations||Developing Nations|
|a. Japan – 21.1 of GDPb. USA – 13% OF GDPc. European Union – 4% of GDP||a. India – 5% of GDPb. China – 2.5 % of GDPc. Brazil – 8% of GDP|
2.Decoding India’s Fiscal measures – India’s fiscal stimulus is wide ranging and covers all the major sectors of economy.
3.Components of Fiscal stimulus
- Above the line component– “Above the line” measures refer to increases in government expenditures and reductions in tax revenues—directly impacting economic activity via fiscal multipliers.
- Below the line component – “Below the line” measures (loans and equity stakes) as well as guarantees (to firms and banks)—the economic impact of these measures depends how much they are taken up and spent by the targeted recipients.
- Primarily credit– The guarantees of various forms (primarily credit).
4.Monetary Policy – The repo rate has been reduced now which stands at 4 per cent, with inflation well contained. Transmission of monetary policy will benefit the industries to get loan at minimum rate which will give them impetus to restart the operations again.
Way Forward – Present government has, thus, used the Covid crisis to re-orient India towards its long-awaited destiny.