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Indian Express Explained 01/05/2020

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1) Explained: Why May 1 is observed as Labour Day

Today (May 1) is May Day, also known as International Workers’ Day and as Labour Day in different parts of the world. It is an occasion that commemorates the contributions of workers and the historic labour movement.

While observed as an ancient northern hemisphere spring festival, May 1 became associated with the labour movement in the late 19th century, after trade unions and socialist groups designated it as a day in support of workers.

It was decided to do so in memory of the Haymarket affair of 1886, in Chicago in the United States, in which a peaceful rally in support of workers led to a violent clash with the police, leading to the deaths of 4 civilians and 7 police officers.

Many of the agitationists, who were protesting workers’ rights violations, straining work hours, poor working conditions, low wages and child labour, were arrested and served terms of life imprisonment, death sentences, etc., and those who died were hailed as “Haymarket Martyrs”.

The incident is believed to have given the workers’ movement a great impetus.

In India, May Day was first celebrated on May 1, 1923, after the Labour Kisan Party of Hindustan initiated and Comrade Singaravelar (Singaravelu Chettiar) helmed the celebrations. In two meetings — one at Triplicane beach and the second at the beach opposite Madras High Court — the Comrade, known for being one of the leaders of Self Respect movement in the Madras Presidency and for his fight for the rights of backward classes, passed a resolution stating the government should allow everybody a national holiday on Labour Day.

 

2) About GAVI :

GAVI Alliance (Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization) is a public-private international health partnership that aims to save children’s lives and improve people’s health by increasing access to vaccines in poor and developing countries. It does this by bringing together all the stakeholders – donor governments, developing countries, World Bank, UNICEF, WHO, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, international finance and development organizations, and pharmaceutical industry – in one decision making body. The GAVI Alliance was started in 2000 at a time when the number of children getting immunized were stagnating or even dwindling in the developing countries.

Achievements

From the time of its inception, it has helped save 370 million child deaths by immunizing them from life-threatening diseases such as Hepatitis B, Hib, polio, tetanus, pertussis, etc.

Method of operations

Countries that are eligible for funding draw up plans for their immunization programme, apply for funding and then implement the immunization program on their own. To make sure that the immunization program is sustainable and that recipient countries seriously carry it out, they are also required to partly fund the cost of vaccines.

India’s involvement with GAVI

India started receiving support for its immunization programme from GAVI in 2002. Apart from that, India is the largest supplier of vaccines to GAVI with 55% of its vaccines coming from the country. Recently, it also agreed to contribute $4 million to the alliance over the next four years. This will give it a chance to interact with the donor constituency and discuss relevant issues with them.

3) E-Kuber:- e-Kuber is the Core Banking Solution of Reserve Bank of India. E-Kuber provides the provision of a single current account for each bank across the country, with decentralised access to this account from anywhere-anytime using portal based services in a safe manner.

Core Banking Solutions (CBS) can be defined as a solution that enables banks to offer a multitude of customer-centric services on a 24×7 basis from a single location, supporting retail as well as corporate banking activities, as well as all possible delivery channels existing and proposed. The centralisation thus makes a “one-stop” shop for financial services a reality. Using CBS, customers can access their accounts from any branch, anywhere, irrespective of where they have physically opened their accounts. Almost all branches of commercial banks, including the Regional Rural Banks (RRBs), are brought into the core-banking fold.

Core Banking Solutions (CBS) marked a paradigm shift as it made a bank’s particular branch customers, now bank customers as they can access their accounts from any branch for defined purposes. CBS links all branches of a bank and offers opportunities for information management, better customer service and improved risk management.

e-Kuber enables ease of operations. The system also benefits state /central Governments as users. Some of the facilities offered include the provision of portal based access which allows Government departments to access on anywhere-anytime basis and view their balances – of all types including the Ways and Means Advances, drawings, funds positions and the like – all in a consolidated manner so as to help them in better funds management. The capability of consolidating revenue collections by banks through the e-Kuber offers the potential for better flexibility for the Government in managing its finances apart from moving over towards higher levels of electronic banking

4) Explained: What is Polydactyly?

The woman’s condition is known as polydactyly/polydactylism or hyperdactyly, a birth defect in which humans and animals have supernumerary fingers or toes.

In other words, a person suffering from the congenital anomaly of polydactyly will have more than five digits in a particular hand or foot — a condition opposite to oligodactyly, in which the sufferer has fewer than five digits in a hand or foot.

Polydactylism is reported in perhaps one or two children per 1,000 live births, and could be the most common abnormality of development seen in newborns worldwide. The defect develops during the sixth or seventh week of gestation, when an irregularity occurs in the splitting of the fingers from the hand or foot, creating an extra digit. Causes are believed to be genetic, in some cases hereditary. The defect is also seen in cats, dogs, cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens, geese, and sometimes horses.

 

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