Indian Express Explained 04th April 2020

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1)Explained: What is Cosmic Yeti?

Scientists have accidentally discovered what they describe as “the footprints a monstrous galaxy” in the early universe. No evidence of any such galaxy had ever been found before. Hence, the scientists have equated these to the mythical Yeti: “Like a cosmic Yeti, the scientific community generally regarded these galaxies as folklore, given the lack of evidence of their existence, but astronomers in the United States and Australia managed to snap a picture of the beast for the first time.

Researchers believe that the emission due to which they were able to “accidentally” observe the galaxy came from star-forming activity inside the galaxy. But for the warm glow radiated during this star-forming activity, the “cosmic Yeti” might have been concealed by dust clouds.

2)Explained: What is quantum supremacy?

Google announced that it has achieved a breakthrough called quantum supremacy in computing. What does that mean, and why is it important?

So, what is quantum supremacy?

It is a term proposed in 2012 by John Preskill, professor of theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology. It describes the point where quantum computers can do things that classical computers cannot.

In Google’s case, researchers at the University of California, Santa Barbara have claimed to have developed a processor that took 200 seconds to do a calculation that would have taken a classical computer 10,000 years.

what is a quantum computer?

Our traditional computers work on the basis of the laws of classical physics, specifically by utilising the flow of electricity.

A quantum computer, on the other hand, seeks to exploit the laws that govern the behaviour of atoms and subatomic particles.

At that tiny scale, many laws of classical physics cease to apply, and the unique laws of quantum physics come into play.

Working Difference:-

Classical computer processes information. Bits of information are stored as either 0 or 1. Every string of such digits (bitstrings) represents a unique character or instruction; for example, 01100001 represents the lowercase “a”.

In a quantum computer, information is stored in quantum bits, or qubits. And a qubit can be both 0 and 1 at the same time.

Quantum physics involves concepts that even physicists describe as weird.

Unlike classical physics, in which an object can exist in one place at one time, quantum physics looks at the probabilities of an object being at different points at the same time.

Existence in multiple states is called superposition, and the relationships among these states is called entanglement.

The higher the number of qubits, the higher the amount of information stored in them. Compared to the information stored in the same number of bits, the information in qubits rises exponentially. That is what makes a quantum computer so powerful.

3)Explained: What is AGR? How will it impact Airtel, Vodafone Idea?

What is AGR?

Telecom operators are required to pay licence fee and spectrum charges in the form of ‘revenue share’ to the Centre.

The revenue amount used to calculate this revenue share is termed as the AGR.

According to the DoT, the calculations should incorporate all revenues earned by a telecom company – including from non-telecom sources such as deposit interests and sale of assets.

The companies, however, have been of the view that AGR should comprise the revenues generated from telecom services only and non-telecom revenues should be kept out of it.

Supreme court recently backed The DoT on the AGR that it should include non-telecom sources of revenue as well.


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