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1)Explained: Why has Uttarakhand decided to have a second capital in Gairsain?

With Governor Baby Rani Maurya giving her assent for declaration of Bhararisen (Gairsain) in Chamoli district as the summer capital of Uttarakhand, a two-decade-long wait of the hill region came to an end. It is expected that the declaration of a summer capital in the region will expedite development of the hilly areas.

Gairsain, a tehsil in Chamoli district, is located nearly 270-km from existing temporary capital of Dehradun. Even when Uttarakhand was carved out as a separate state from Uttar Pradesh on November 9, 2000, statehood activists had contended that Gairsain was best suited to be the capital of the mountainous state since it was between both Kumaon and Garhwal regions. But it was Dehradun in the plains that was names the temporary capital.

Now, with the announcement of Gairsain as the summer capital, there is a lack of clarity on the status of Dehradun.

2)Assam gas leak: why it’s tough to plug, and what threat it poses to the area:- Since the morning of May 27, natural gas has been continuously flowing out of a gas well in Assam following a blowout — or a sudden, uncontrolled release of gas/oil.

Where is the Oil Rig : The Baghjan 5 well is a purely gas-producing well in Tinsukia district, and is at an aerial distance of 900 metres from the Dibru-Saikhowa National Park. It was drilled by Oil India Limited (OIL) in 2006. It produces around 80,000 standard cubic metres per day (SCMD) of gas from a depth of 3,870 metres. 

What is Being done :- A crisis management team from OIL and ONGC intend to create a water umbrella to protect workers while they hook up the blowout preventer. “With very limited space and non-availability of open space above the well head, placement of the BOP is a huge challenge and entails a huge risk. It is planned to place the BOP on the well head through a hydraulically driven mechanical transporter,” OIL said in a release on Sunday. Drilling mud will have to be pumped in immediately after capping the well by the BOP.

3)Explained: How many migrant workers displaced? A range of estimates

Various govt estimates: Last week, the Chief Labour Commissioner put the figure at 26 lakh migrants stranded across the country, of whom 10% are said to be in relief camps, 43% on work sites and 46% in other clusters. The Solicitor General, on the other hand, informed the Supreme Court of 97 lakh who had been transported back home.

The Economic Survey of 2017 has a chapter, ‘India On the Move and Churning: New Evidence, which is regarded as an important government document that looks at the number of internal migrants then or labour that travels to cities from rural India in spurts. Using a new Cohort-based Migration Metric (CMM) and railway data, it put interstate migration at 60 million.

“The first-ever estimates of internal work-related migration using railways data for the period 2011-2016 indicate an annual average flow of close to 9 million people between the states. Both these estimates are significantly greater than the annual average number of about 3.3 million suggested by successive Censuses and higher than previously estimated by any study.”

4)Explained: The recent lawsuit against Google for ‘tracking incognito internet use’:-  Google was sued in a proposed class action suit in the US. The lawsuit alleges that the company tracks people even when they are browsing the internet using the “private mode”. The class action suit demands $5 billion from Google’s parent firm Alphabet for violating the Federal Wiretap law and the invasion of privacy Act.

It also claims that Google’s interception of user data is “intentional” and “unlawful”.

Google tracks and collects consumer browsing history and other web browsing activity data “no matter what” safeguards consumers may use.

How does Google Achieved this?:- Google accomplished this using means such as Google Analytics, Google Ad Manager and other applications and website plug-ins on mobile devices and websites. “When an internet user visits a webpage or opens an app that uses such services (over 70% of all online publishers use such a service), Google receives detailed, personal information such as the user’s IP address (which may provide geographic information), what the user is viewing, what the user last viewed, and details about the user’s hardware,” the lawsuit claims.

What is Federal Wiretap Act:- The Federal Wiretap Act prohibits the intentional interception of the contents of any wire, oral or electronic communication through the use of a safe device. “Google’s actions in intercepting and tracking user communications while they were browsing the internet using a browser while in “private browsing mode” was intentional. 

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