1)Explained: What is the term R0, used to measure coronavirus transmission?
Coronavirus: What is ‘R0’, or reproduction number?
R0 (pronounced “R-naught”) is the rate at which a virus is transmitted.
Also called the basic reproduction number, it indicates the average number of people who will contract the virus from a person who has already been infected, in a population that does not have immunity for the said disease.
(R0= new infections/existing infections).
The higher the R0, the more contagious the infection.
When the R0 is 1, it means the number of infected persons in a population is constant. For every person who is cured of the disease or dies due to it, there will be one fresh case in the population.
By this logic, the ideal scenario is when the R0 is below 1. This means the infection is transmitted to fewer people. When such a rate is maintained over a considerable period of time, the disease is eradicated.
2)Armed forces in coronavirus outbreak battle: their role, procedures for requisition
What is the Procedure to Bring army for Civil Administration :-
What is the procedure?
The regulations permit civil authorities to requisition the Army for controlling law and order, maintaining essential services, assisting during natural calamities such as earthquakes, and any other type of help that may be needed by the civil authorities.
The procedure for requisitioning armed forces is governed under ‘Aid to Civil Authorities’ under the guidelines laid in Instructions on Aid to the Civil Authorities by the Armed Forces, 1970; Regulations for the Army, Chapter VII, Paragraphs 301 to 327; and Manual of Indian Military Law, Chapter VII.
Civil administration requests the Local Military Authority for assistance, for the maintenance of law and order, maintenance of essential services, disaster relief and other types of assistance. Armed forces can be asked to provide troops and equipment for a flag march, rescue and relief, evacuation, and immediate aid.
What are the tasks expected to be performed in the current situation?
- maintenance of law and order,
- crowd control,
- curfew in sensitive areas,
- evacuation of civilians from affected areas,
- provision of essential supply of electricity and water,
- restoration of essential services,
- emergency feeding and shelter,
- prevention of panic,
- prevention of theft and loot,
- guarding quarantine locations and detention centres,
- surveillance through drones aerial platforms, and
- other miscellaneous tasks.
Providing aid to civil authorities, as and when called upon to do so, is a secondary task for the armed forces. It cannot replace the primary role of ensuring external security and operational preparedness.
3)Decentralised Procurement Scheme
The Scheme of Decentralised procurement (DCP) refers to the manner of procurement of foodgrains to the central (federal) government stock, through the state agencies, rather than through the central (Federal) agency of Food Corporation of India (FCI).
The foodgrains are procured at the Minimum Support Price (MSP) declared by the Central Government.
So What happens under DPS:-
Under the decentralized procurement scheme (DCP), the State Government itself undertakes direct purchase of paddy and/or wheat on behalf of Government of India.
Purchase centres are opened by the State Governments and their agencies as per their requirements.
Under this scheme, the State Governments themselves procure grains for the Central pool, store and distribute these foodgrains for Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) and other welfare schemes (eg mid day meal, supply of foodgrains to Scheduled Cast /tribe/other backward class hostels etc.), based on the allocation made by the Union or Central Government.
The surplus of foodgrains procured by DCP States, in excess of their requirement is handed over to FCI for the Central Pool stocks and deficit, if any, is met by FCI directly.
4) E- Nivesh :- E-Nivesh is an online web based digital platform to monitor the processing of 88 different types clearances / approvals to be granted by various Central Government Ministries/Department for an investment project.
The word “Nivesh” stands for investment. This is not the online portal for giving the actual clearances, which is done through e-biz.
On the other hand, E-Nivesh is a single window system for monitoring the progress of these clearances.