Indian Express Explained 11/06/2020

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What will be the impact of reverse migration?

Syllabus: GS-1-population and associated issues

Context: Millions of migrant workers have returned home amidst the Covid-19 lockdown. This has led to reverse migration.

Brief Overview of Internal Migration in India

According to the Census 2011 migration data:

  • There over 45.58 crore Indians were found to be migrants as against 31.45 crore during 2001 Census.
  • UP, Bihar, Rajasthan and MP had the highest ‘outmigration’. Maharashtra, Delhi and Gujarat had the largest ‘in-migration’

Reason for recent reverse migration: Most migrant workers are employed in the informal sector of the urban areas. The Covid-19 lockdown has hit the informal economy the most. Fear of losing sources of livelihood and shelter in urban areas during the lockdown forced migrant labourers to return home

Impact of Reverse Migration

  • Impact of Rural Economy:Rural India’s economy is entirely dependent on agriculture and is already crippled with underemployed working population. Reverse migration would further aggravate the issue and lead to disguise unemployment in the agricultural sector.
  • Impact on Urban Economy:Reverse migration has already led to labor shortage in urban areas. This has serious implications and can delay economic recovery in post- Covid times, which can affect social stability.

Conclusion: The reverse migration will have serious implications for both rural and urban economy. However, it is likely that the reverse migration is temporary and will return to normal after the threat of covid-19 has subsided.

2) Importance of technology for Judicial reforms

Syllabus: GS 2-Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

Context: Analysing the urgent need to radically transform the Indian judicial system to remove the problems that affect the delivery of justice using technology.


  • Pendency of cases: There are more than 3.5 crore pending cases in courts of which 87.54 per cent of the total pendency of cases is in the district courts. (As of November 2019)

Source: TOI

  • Effects of COVID-19 on courts: The courts were shut down for all except the most urgent matters to reduce the risk of infection of litigants and judges.

Issue in design of courts: Our judicial system is simply not designed for contactless operations as most court processes—the submission of pleadings, the payment of court fees, the conduct of arguments—require person-to-person interaction.

To tackle effects of COVID-19, some of these issues were dealt.

Adaptations of courts due to COVID-19 using technologies:

  • Video conferencing facilities: They were set up to allow judges and lawyers to hear urgent matters virtually.
  • E-filing of documents: Written pleadings could be submitted without any need to be physically present.
  • Digital payment systems: It includes court-approved virtual wallets to let court fees be paid remotely.

These changes were introduced due to COVID-19 but we need permanent reforms in Judiciary.

  • Discussion on Judicial reforms: Niti Aayog meeting and the Multi-stakeholder webinar talked about the importance of technology in judicial use.
  • Online Dispute Resolution:It can be made mandatory for some cases.
  • Complementing Private Online Dispute Resolution: To ensure that online resolution can reach different industries, locations and parts of the country.
  • Shifting towards written advocacy: When we take our disputes online, we should consider adopting the online medium of communication such as chats, emails and the exchange of electronic messages.
  • Incorporating cognitive technologies directly into the dispute resolution workflow: This does not have to mean using artificial intelligence to decide our disputes. It could be as simple as offering better ways of making informed decisions about litigation strategies.
  • For example- The biggest litigant in India is the State. The many cognitive technologies offer us the ability to generate data-driven reports on the chances of success of each appeal that the government is thinking of pursuing, based on an analysis of previous judgments.


Atma nirbhar Mission – Local is synonymous to Import Substitution

Source – The Hindu

Syllabus – GS 3 – changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

Context – The idea of getting vocal about local is being compared to India’s tryst with import substitution in post-Independence era

Import substitution-based Industrialisation 

  1. Definition– It refers to period when industrialisation meant production of all the commodities which were hitherto imported.
  2. Reason for introduction– Need for such policy was the structural imbalance created by Colonial Empire.

Figure 1 – Structural imbalance created by Colonial Empire

  1. Aim and Objective– The import substitution policy was, hence, aimed at promoting production of consumer goods and capital goods in country with objective of:
  • Increasing employment opportunities
  • Decreasing loss of foreign exchange which is paid for import of goods
  • Sustainable GDP
  • Self- reliance in Non –Alignment Era
  1. Forms – The protection from import is done in two forms:
  • Quotas- It specifies the number of goods that can be imported.
  • Tariffs- It is a tax that is imposed on imported products; this tax makes imported products more costly

Getting vocal about local – Atma Nirbhar Mission

1.Reasons for getting local 

  • Immediate Reason– The disruption in supply-chain brought by pandemic which deprived India of necessary active pharmaceutical agents needed for production of medicines.
  • Long-term Reason– Addressing the issue of jobless growth and premature deindustrialisation requires promoting made-in-India goods.

2.Issues associated with getting local 

  1. Against globalisation– Production of all goods in domestic market is against the principle of competitive advantage and thus goes against the spirit of globalisation.
  2. Lack of R&D – India’s R&D to GDP ratio is less than ~1% .Investment in R&D is essential for production of high-end technology needed for production of goods at home at cheaper rate.
  3. Weak Financial sector– To promote entrepreneurship, financial systems need to be robust so that credit at lower interest rate can be provided. However, the high NPA’s in banks has led to slowdown in credit growth.
  4. Poor performance of states and local bodies– To promote local goods based on each district’s competitive advantage, need is to promote fiscal federalism and empowerment of local bodies.
  5. Creates inefficiency – Lack of competition from rest of the world can make the entire industrial sector inefficient, leading to less than desired output and job creation.

Way Forward – India need to promote local production of goods along with better participation in global supply chain to focus on export-led growth and promote forces of globalisation.

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