Indian Express Explained 17th April 2020

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1)Explained: Who was June Almeida, the virologist who first saw the coronavirus?

The scientist who visualised the first human coronavirus was virologist June Almeida. She pioneered the technique of electron microscopy, used for viral diagnosis, and became the first individual to see the human coronavirus.

Almeida pioneered a technique called electron microscopy that involved the use of negative staining.

Through her method, the virus was introduced to antibodies, which it latched itself on to.

Using negative staining— where the background is strained, leaving the specimen untouched and, therefore, visible— she was able to see the virus clumped with the antibodies, and visualise its structure.

2)Guillotine :-

Each year, after the Budget is presented in the floor of the Lok Sabha by the Finance Minister, the House has the opportunity to discuss the financial proposals contained in it.

The process of deliberations on the Budget sets off with a general discussion followed by the Vote on Account, debating and voting on the Demands for Grants and finally, consideration and passing of the Appropriation and Finance Bills.

Guillotine refers to the exercise vide which the Speaker of the House, on the very last day of the period allotted for discussions on the Demands for Grants, puts to vote all outstanding Demands for Grants at a time specified in advance.

The aim of the exercise is to conclude discussions on financial proposals within the time specified.

All outstanding Demands for Grants must be voted by the House without discussions once the guillotine is invoked.

Once the pre-specified time for invoking the guillotine is reached, the member who is in possession of the house at that point in time, is requested by the Speaker to resume his or her seat following which Demands for Grants under discussion are immediately put to vote.

Thereafter, all outstanding Demands are guillotined.

Invoking the guillotine ensures timely passage of the Finance Bill and the conclusion of debates and discussions on the year’s Budget.

3) National Floor Level Minimum wage :-

National Floor Level Minimum Wage is the minimum wage below which no state Government in India can fix the minimum wage.

Unlike the concept of “minimum wage” this is a non-statutory measure to ensure upward revision of minimum wages in different in States/UT’s.

Thus, the State Governments are persuaded to fix minimum wages such that in none of the scheduled employments (those employments which are by law, liable for payment of minimum wages), the minimum wage is less than the National Floor Level Minimum Wage.

This method has helped to some extent in reducing disparity among different rates of minimum wages existing in various states. Rates are revised periodically.


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