1)Climate Change and Climate Variability:-
“Climate Change” is defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which is the multilateral treaty for international coordinated action to address climate change, in its Article 1, as “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods”.
On the contrary, ‘Climate change’ is defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as a change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the mean (and/or the variability), and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer.
Climate variability refers to variations in the mean state and other statistics (such as standard deviations, the occurrence of extremes, etc.) of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events. Variability may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system (internal variability), or to variations in natural or anthropogenic external forcing (external variability).
The UNFCCC thus makes a distinction between climate change attributable to human activities altering the atmospheric composition and climate variability attributable to natural causes.
Importance of Climate Change:-
According to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), over the century, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide increased from a pre-industrial value of 278 parts per million to 379 parts per million in 2005, and the average global temperature rose by 0.740C. Thus, the message is that climate change is for real and humans are very likely to be causing it.
Climate Change and India:- As far as India is concerned, its per capita emissions are much lower compared to those of the developed countries. India’s per capita CO2 emissions were 1.7 tons in 2009 compared to 18.4 in Australia, 17.3 in USA, 8.6 in Japan, 7.7 in U.K and 5.8 in China(Source: World Bank data base).
Government of India has also proposed to set up the National Institute for Climate Change Studies and Actions (NICCSA) under Climate Change Action Programme (CCAP) of the Ministry of Environment and Forests with a view to carry out analytical studies of scientific, environmental, economic development and technological issues related to climate change.
Established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the UN Environment Programme, the IPCC surveys world-wide scientific and technical literature and publishes assessment reports that are widely recognized as the most credible existing sources of information on climate change. The IPCC also works on methodologies and responds to specific requests from the UNFCCC’s subsidiary bodies. The IPCC is independent of the UNFCCC.
2)ExplainSpeaking: Why the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan economic package is being criticised:-
Basic criticism :- There is no sure way of knowing how much the government will spend at the end of this financial year, but most calculations suggest that far from the promised 10% of GDP, the actual government expenditure in the Atmanirbhar package is just 1%.
There are 4 Components of GDP in the Form of expenditure. All the interconnected and decrease when income decreases.
Ex. One, individuals (like you and me) will cut down their expenditure. (Consumption Expenditure) (C) .
Two, seeing overall demand fall, businesses, which were already not investing, will likely postpone their investments (I) further.
Three, the government revenues will take a massive hit. This means that if the government wants to maintain its level of fiscal deficit (the gap between what it earns as revenues and what it spends), it will have to cut its overall Government expenditure (G) this year.
Last Component is Net Exports. (Export – Import) (X) .
So GDP = C + G + I + G
“G” part is very very powerful :- Of these four engines of growth, only the government has a “superpower” — it is the only one which can spend money even when it doesn’t have it. Moreover, when the government spends money — say Rs 100 — the economy moves ahead by far more than Rs 100.
CENTTAL ARGUMENT OF CRITICISM:- At present, there is no sure-shot way of knowing what will be the final level of government spending at the end of this financial year. Most calculations suggest that — far from the promised level of 10% of the GDP — the actual government expenditure in the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan is just 1% of GDP. And we still don’t know if this 1% (of GDP) expenditure is over and above the Budgeted expenditure or will it be funded by expenditure cuts elsewhere.
3) National Migrant Information System (NMIS)
What is it :- It is a central online repository on Migrant Workers – developed by NDMA to facilitate their seamless movement across States.
National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has developed an online Dashboard – National Migrant Information System (NMIS).
It has additional advantages like contact tracing, which may be useful in overall COVID-19 response work.
The key data pertaining to the persons migrating has been standardized for uploading such as name, age, mobile no., originating and destination district, date of travel etc., which States are already collecting.
States will be able to visualize how many people are going out from where and how many are reaching destination States.