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Indian Express Explained 19th April 2020

1)Explained: Kalapani, a small area on the India map that bothers Nepal :- Mapped within Uttarakhand is a 372-sq km area called Kalapani, bordering far-west Nepal and Tibet. While the Nepal government and political parties have protested, India has said the new  map does not revise the existing boundary with Nepal.

The Kalapani territory is an area disputed between India and Nepal, but under Indian administration as part of Pithoragarh district in the Uttarakhand state.

According to Nepal’s claim, it lies in Darchula district, Sudurpashchim Pradesh.

It is marked by the Kalapani river, one of the headwaters of the Kali River in the Himalayas at an altitude of 3600–5200 meters. The valley of Kalapani, with the Lipulekh Pass at the top, forms the Indian route to Kailash–Manasarovar, an ancient pilgrimage site. It is also the traditional trading route to Tibet for the Bhotiyas of Uttarakhand.

The Kali River forms the boundary between India and Nepal in this region. However, India states that the headwaters of the river are not included in the boundary. Here the border runs along the watershed. This is a position dating back to British India c. 1865.

2)The significance of the Feni river MoU between India, Bangladesh:-

The Feni river, which forms part of the India-Bangladesh border, originates in the South Tripura district, passes through Sabroom town on the Indian side, and meets the Bay of Bengal after it flows into Bangladesh. There has been no water-sharing agreement between the countries on the Feni previously.

The dispute over the sharing of the river water has been long-standing. It was taken up between India and Pakistan (before the independence of Bangladesh) in 1958 during a Secretary-level meeting in New Delhi.

Importance of India-Bangladesh MoU

The Daily Star reported that in August 2019, India and Bangladesh held a water secretary-level meeting of the Joint Rivers Commission (JRC) in Dhaka, where it was agreed to collect data and prepare water-sharing agreements for seven rivers — Manu, Muhuri, Khowai, Gumti, Dharla, Dudhkumar, and Feni.

In Tripura, a 150-metre long, 4-lane bridge across the Feni is being built between India and Bangladesh, where the river forms the border between the two countries. It is expected to be completed by March 2020 at an estimated expenditure of Rs 73 crore.

3)Hindu rate of growth :-The term ‘secular’ rate of growth (which connotes long term trend growth) is well established in literature of development economics. (It is also used in the sense of a religious belief, practice and process of the State).

In distinctive contrast,Hindu’ rate of growth was coined to refer to the phenomenon of sluggishness in growth rate of Indian economy (3.5 per cent observed persistently during 1950s through 1980s).

The term, which owes to Professor Raj Krishna, Member, Planning Commission, captured popular imagination and was used synonymously to describe inadequacy of India’s growth performance. However, of late, the term has lost its relevance and appeal as economic reforms and liberalization in India since 1990s manifested in tripling of growth rate of Indian economy from this paltry level.

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