Indian Express Explained 22/05/2020

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1)Explained: What does the increase in Chinese transgressions mean?

What is Transgression : A Chinese transgression across the border is recorded once the Indian border guarding forces in an area – either the Army or the ITBP – are “reasonably certain” that the Chinese soldiers had crossed over to the Indian side of the LAC. A Chinese transgression – in air, land or the waters of Pangong Tso lake.

What are the Various Sectors in India – China Border : India-China border is divided into three sectors, where the LAC in the western sector falls in the union territory of Ladakh and is 1597 km long, the middle sector of 545 km length falls in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and 1346 km long eastern sector falls in the states of Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. The middle sector is the least disputed sector, while the western sector witnesses the highest transgressions between the two sides.

What’s the Wuhan Spirit :- Modi and Xi met at first informal summit at Wuhan in April 2018, where the two leaders had “issued strategic guidance to their respective militaries to strengthen communication in order to build trust and mutual understanding and enhance predictability and effectiveness in the management of border affairs”.

Has the Wuhan Spirit Vanished :- Tensions are rising between India and China. Besides tensions at Naku La in Sikkim and at Galwan river and Pangong Tso in Ladakh, Indians have been worried about the Nepal government’s recent behaviour on the border map issue.

Army Chief General MM Naravane didn’t leave much to imagination when he said that Nepal was doing it at “the behest of a third party,” ostensibly referring to China.

2)New Research: How lockdown has impacted Indian farmers, their yields

Recently a Report was published regarding impact of Lockdown on the Farmers::

Key findings

● 10% of farmers could not harvest their crop in the past month and 60% of those who did harvest reported a yield loss. Many reported that this was because of lockdown-related issues such as low market price or inability to access their land due to travel restrictions. Several farmers also reported severe weather and water scarcity/lack of irrigation, which are persistent challenges in the agricultural sector and will need to be addressed as the slower-burning climate crisis continues in the midst of the pandemic.

● 1 in 4 farmers reported storing their crops instead of selling them due to the lockdown and 12% of farmers were still trying to sell their crops. Small/marginal farmers were significantly less likely to be able to sell their crops as compared to large farmers.

● 56% of farmers reported that the lockdown has impacted their ability to prepare for the upcoming sowing season. In particular, 50% of these said that they were concerned about being able to afford inputs, particularly seeds and fertiliser, and 38% were concerned about labor shortages.

3)Explained: What is the SpaceX Demo-2 mission, set to launch next week?

The Demo-2 mission is part of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program, and will see astronauts Robert Behnken and Douglas Hurley fly on SpaceX’s Crew Dragon spacecraft. The craft will lift off from a Falcon 9 rocket, from Florida.
The main objective of this program is to make access to space easier in terms of its cost, so that cargo and crew can be easily transported to and from the ISS, enabling greater scientific research.

Secondly, by encouraging private companies such as Boeing and SpaceX to provide crew transportation services to and from low-Earth orbit, NASA can focus on building spacecraft and rockets meant for deep space exploration missions.

4)Treaty of Versailles:-

  • The Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, 1919, without Germany.
  • The Treaty placed a heavy burden on Germany’s burgeoning democracy.
  • In Germany, many dismissed the treaty as a “dictated peace” due to its harsh terms.
  • Germany only signed the treaty after the Allies threatened to invade the country.
  • The victorious powers — led by the United States, Britain, France and Italy — declared Germany and its allies to be solely responsible for the outbreak of World War I.
  • The Treaty of Versailles failed to create a lasting peace on the European continent.
  • Adolf Hitler’s rise to power once again transformed Germany into a disruptive nation, with building up army, and alliances with other fascist countries like Italy and Spain.

Specific Provisions: The population and territory of Germany was reduced by about 10 percent by the treaty.

In the west, Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France, and the Saarland was placed under the supervision of the League of Nations until 1935.

In the north, three small areas were given to Belgium, and, after a plebiscite in Schleswig, northern Schleswig was returned to Denmark.

In the east, Poland was resurrected, given most of formerly German West Prussia and Poznań (Posen), given a “corridor” to the Baltic Sea (which separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany), and given part of Upper Silesia after a plebiscite. Gdańsk (Danzig) was declared a free city.

All Germany’s overseas colonies in China, in the Pacific, and in Africa were taken over by Britain, France, Japan, and other Allied nations.

The treaty included the Covenant of the League of Nations, in which members guaranteed each other’s independence and territorial integrity

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