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Indian Express Explained 23/05/2020

1)Work Culture in the Ties of Corona:-

Traditional work culture – Traditionally, in both private and public sector, employees and employer go to the working place where all work related to formal and informal activities are carried out. It involves doing official work to hosting lunch for all.

Benefits of traditional work culture –

a.Human contact– The working place ensures that employees and employer get to know each other well by spending significant time working together and participating in informal events.

b.Freedom from domestic stresses– Workplace provides a focused environment to work where freedom from domestic stresses is there.  For instance, women employees have double burden of office work and care work provided at home. Workplaces give them better focused environment to work which is not possible in work from home.

c.Provides work Identity– Individual’s self esteem and social standing are provided and boosted because of work place, especially in India. That’s why money was spent in the first place on well-designed offices in specific locations that people feel proud to go to.

The new normal – Work from Home

The lockdown restrictions across the world has given impetus to work from home model. In this model, employers as well as employers perform all work-related activities at home – submitting projects to organizing meetings using digital space.

Benefits of Work from home Model

  1. Reduced overhead cost – The Company’s overhead costs which involve rentals, phone bills, travel bills etc are reduced by significant margin which adds to profit share of company.
  2. Flexibility to employees – Employees have considerable flexibility in terms of work hours. Also it saves their time spent on commuting to workplace and back which in turn reduces the travel fatigue.
  3. Quality time with family –Workers get to spend quality time with family members at home which add to their happiness and can significantly improve work performance.

Issues related to Work from Home Model

  1. Lost human touch and social capital– The workers working online or over telephone do not necessarily develop team spirit which in turn affects the quality of work and productivity of the company.
  2. Double burden– Work from home includes doing office work at home and simultaneously dealing with family members and their uninterrupted demand. This adds double burden to worker especially female employees. For this, many companies are also defining work from home hours, emailing hours and calling hours so employees get mental and emotional space.
  3. Lack of high quality digital connectivity– Poor digital connections interrupts the work hours as well as office meetings which again affects the productivity of company.
  4. New norms for employees– This model demand updated norms for employees and re-organization of business model of companies where workplace is an important aspect of better productivity.

For instance – Companies compensate employees based on the city where they are located because staying in larger cities is expensive. So in long term work from home there will be a need to restructure the salary components as well to balance company costs as well as afford better talent remotely.

Way Forward – Work from home is the emerging unconventional approach to tackle the COVID but the rise of gig economy in India will make this model permanent. This requires dealing with its issues comprehensively so that interests of all stakeholders are taken care of.

2) Other than Open Skies Treaty 2 More treaties were in News:

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty:

  • It was signed by United States and the Soviet Union in 1987. USA exited from the treaty in 2019.
  • The countries agreed to eliminate their stocks of intermediate-range and shorter-range land-based missiles (which could carry nuclear warheads).

New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty): It is a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation.It was signed in 2010.

3)Biodiversity Samrakshan Internship Programme:

  • It was launched by the National Biodiversity Authority(NBA) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
  • Aim: Toengage 20 students with postgraduate degrees for a period of one year to support the projects of NBA in various State/UTs and to technically assist the State Biodiversity Boards Biodiversity Council in discharge of their mandates.

Not all Animals Migrate by Choice Campaign:

  • It was launched by the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau along with the United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP) against Illegal Trafficking of Endangered Species.
  • Aim: To create awareness and garner public support for the protection and conservation of wildlife, prevention of smuggling and reduction in demand for wildlife products.

Additional Facts:

  • Wildlife Crime Control Bureau: It is a statutory multi disciplinary body established by Government of India under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change to combat organized wildlife crime in the country.
  • National Biodiversity Authority(NBA): It was established in 2003 as a statutory autonomous body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and climate change to implement the provisions under the Biological Diversity Act, 2002.

4) Different Speeds and Representation:-

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