Indian Express Explained 26th March 2020

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1)Explained: J&K wasn’t alone, Constitution has ‘special provisions’ for 11 other states

The central government has revoked the ‘special status’ granted to Jammu and Kashmir by the Constitution. However, a range of “special provisions” for as many as 11 other states continue to be part of the Constitution.

Part XXI of the Constitution, ‘Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions’, includes, apart from Article 370 (Temporary Provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir) Articles 371, 371A, 371B, 371C, 371D, 371E, 371F, 371G, 371H, and 371J, which define special provisions with regard to other states of the Indian Union.

Nagaland (Article 371A, 13th Amendment Act, 1962)

Assam (Article 371B, 22nd Amendment Act, 1969)

Manipur (Article 371C, 27th Amendment Act, 1971)

Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (Article 371D, 32nd Amendment Act, 1973; substituted by the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014)

Sikkim (Article 371F, 36th Amendment Act, 1975)

Arunachal Pradesh (Article 371H, 55th Amendment Act, 1986)

Karnataka (Article 371J, 98th Amendment Act, 2012)

2)Explained: What is Section 144 of CrPC?

Section 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) is issued in urgent cases of security threat or riot and bars the assembly of five or more people in an area where it has been imposed. The notification is issued by the District Magistrate of the area. The section also empowers the authorities to block internet access.

What is the punishment if someone violates Section 144 CrPC?

Any person involved in such unlawful assembly can be booked for “engaging in rioting”. The maximum punishment for such act is three years. Anyone who obstructs the police from breaking the assembly or abets the assembly is also punishable under law.

What is the difference between prohibitory orders under Section 144 and curfew?

It must be noted that Section 144 CrPC is not equivalent to a curfew. Curfew orders are issued in more severe situations where people are instructed to stay indoors for a specific time or period. Establishments such as markets, schools, colleges, etc. are ordered to remain shut, and only essential services are allowed to run on prior notice. There is a complete restriction on traffic as well.

3)The extent of groundwater over-exploitation, state by state

All these over-exploited assessment units are in 17 states and Union Territories. Punjab has the highest extent of over-exploitation at 79 per cent of its blocks, followed Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, each at 50 per cent or more.


Tamil Nadu, which has the highest number of blocks (1,116 firkas), also has the highest number of over-exploited units at 462 firkas, or 40 per cent. In Maharashtra, where the Marathwada region is drought-hit, 3 per cent of the talukas are over-exploited. In Uttar Pradesh with 830 units (820 blocks and 10 cities), 11 per cent are over-exploited. In the eight Northeastern states none of the assessment units (districts and blocks) is over-exploited.

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