Indian Express Newspaper 05th December 2019

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1)What Jewar Airport brings to the National Capital Region:-A Swiss company has won the bid for an airport in Jewar, Greater Noida.The airport is being planned as India’s largest, with a proposed six to eight runways once it is fully operational.

How has land acquisition progressed?:-The first phase involves acquisition of 1,334 hectares from farmers in six villages in Jewar tehsil.

Acquisition faced protests from groups of farmers who alleged the amount was insufficient compared to what they were entitled to under the Land Acquisition Act, 2013.

2)Malaria drop is sharpest in India, 90% of cases are in 7 states:-Seven states account for about 90% of the burden of malaria cases in India, according to the World Malaria Report 2019 released by the World Health Organization (WHO). These are Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Gujarat, Odisha and Madhya Pradesh.

India reported 2.6 million fewer cases in 2018. This makes India the country with the largest absolute reductions among the countries that share 85% of the malaria burden.

Nigeria had the highest burden of all malaria cases, at 24%. However, incidence of P vivax malaria (the second most common form of the disease) was the highest in India, which accounts for 47% of all cases in 2018, or roughly 3.5 million. India had more than four times as many cases as Afghanistan, the next highest at 11%.


3)Explained: How CO2 emission trend reflects India slowdown:- What are the numbers –The Global Carbon Project, which puts out emission estimates for across the world every year, has said India’s emissions in 2019 (2.6 billion tonnes or gigatonnes) was likely to be only 1.8 per cent higher than in 2018. This is significantly lower than the 8% growth that India showed last year and the more-than-5% average growth over the last ten years.

What has caused this growth decline :- The lower growth in CO2 emissions, though desirable, is only a positive fallout (positive consequence of a negative thing) of the slowdown in the Indian economy, according to the report.

“Indian CO2 emissions have grown at 5.1 per cent per year over the last decade, but growth is expected to be much weaker in 2019, at 1.8 per cent (range 0.7 to 3.7 per cent). Weak economic growth in India has led to slower growth in oil and natural gas use.


4)What is Extra Neutral Alcohol (ENA)?:-

Extra Neutral Alcohol (ENA) is the primary raw material for making alcoholic beverages.

It is a colourless food-grade alcohol that does not have any impurities. It has a neutral smell and taste, and typically contains over 95 per cent alcohol by volume. It is derived from different sources — sugarcane molasses and grains — and is used in the production of alcoholic beverages such as whisky, vodka, gin, cane, liqueurs, and alcoholic fruit beverages.

ENA also serves as an essential ingredient in the manufacture of cosmetics and personal care products such as perfumes, toiletries, hair spray, etc. Given its properties as a good solvent, ENA also finds industrial use and is utilised in the production of some lacquers, paints and ink for the printing industry, as well as in pharmaceutical products such as antiseptics, drugs, syrups, medicated sprays.

Like ethanol, ENA is a byproduct of the sugar industry, and is formed from molasses that are a residue of sugarcane processing.

5)Slowdown Pain : Issue :With states facing GST revenue shortfalls, Centre needs to find a way of compensating them

Background:- The economic slowdown is taking a toll not only on the Central government finances, but on state finances as well. Particularly worrying is the lower than expected GST collections. State governments have reportedly been told that the compensation requirements of states, owing to the shortfalls in GST collections, are “unlikely to be met” from the compensation cess being collected.

what does the act says :-As per the GST Act, states have been guaranteed compensation in the event of their revenue growth falling below 14 per cent (base 2015-16) for a five-year period ending in 2022.

What if the compensation cess collection not enough:- If the collections from the compensation cess are unable to fully meet the shortfall in state GST revenues in a particular year, then there is a provision which allows for clawing back the compensation paid, over and above what was required in the previous year, to settle the excess shortfall. Beyond that, whether and how the Centre manages to fulfill its obligation of ensuring that states achieve 14 per cent revenue growth is uncertain. Then there is the issue of extending the compensation period for states beyond 2022.

Some long term solutions are needed :-long-term approach should be to gradually reduce the items in the highest tax slab, prune the list of exempt items, and move towards reducing the number of tax slabs. Further, the council must also look to improving the ease of filing and other measures to boost compliance levels, and plug more gaps in the GST architecture.










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