1)4-in-1: The common factor in new UT of Daman & Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haveli:-
Vasco Da Gama’s arrival at Calicut, on May 20, 1498, marked the arrival of Portuguese in India.
Having made Goa the capital of their eastern empire, the Portuguese gradually turned their attention to Diu, Daman, Dadra and Nagar Haveli — two separate Union Territories which were combined into one with a Bill passed by Parliament.
Diu and Daman remained in the possession of the Portuguese till way after Independence. On December 19, 1961, Indian soldiers finally ousted them in ‘Operation Vijay’, that involved land, sea and air strikes for 48 hours.
Daman and Diu were then brought under a Union Territory of Goa, Daman, and Diu — despite the distance that separated the three. After Goa became a state in 1987, Daman & Diu became a UT, with Daman as the capital.
The Portuguese occupied Nagar Haveli on June 10, 1783, on the basis of a friendship treaty that they had executed three years earlier with the Maratha Navy, which offered the territory as compensation for having struck and damaged a Portuguese frigate. Two years later, the Portuguese purchased Dadra from tribal king Tofozon.
The Portuguese rule in Dadra & Nagar Haveli lasted till 1954, when the territory was occupied by supporters of the Indian Union.
Cultural aspect of Daman diu and Dadra Nagar haveli:-
Culturally and socially though, the two UTs are far apart, as a majority of the population in Dadra & Nagar Haveli is tribal, while Daman & Diu mostly have fishermen. Geographically, while Daman and Diu are islands, Dadra and Nagar Haveli are located in the plains, bordered by the Western Ghats.
Daman, once known as a haven for smugglers, is now famous for its liquor tourism, drawing huge numbers from the neighbouring dry state of Gujarat.
2)The seas have less oxygen now than they used to. Why — and what does this mean?
Who has carried out this study, and what does it say?
The report is the work of 67 scientists from 17 countries around the world. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the global authority on the status of the natural world and the measures needed to safeguard it, released the study on Saturday (December 7) at the United Nations Climate Change Conference currently underway in Madrid.
According to the findings of the study, the levels of oxygen in oceans fell by around 2 per cent from 1960 to 2010.
The deoxygenation of the oceans occurred due to climate change and other human activities (such as the nutrient runoff from farm fertilizers into waterways), the report said.
what can deoxygenation do to oceans?
- In many parts of the world, including along the western coast of the United States, fish have been dying en masse — a clear illustration of the ways in which deoxygenation is choking the oceans.
- Also, the loss of oxygen in the oceans can affect the planetary cycling of elements such as nitrogen and phosphorous which are essential for life on Earth.
- As oceans lose oxygen, they become more acidic, a phenomenon that has resulted in some places in shellfish having their shells degraded or dissolved — the so called “osteoporosis of the sea”.
- Apart from their declining oxygen content, oceans have, since the middle of the 20th century, absorbed 93 per cent of the heat associated with human-caused greenhouse gas emissions, leading to mass bleaching of coral reefs.
- Also, since warmer water occupies more space than cooler water, NASA estimates that this is the reason for roughly a third of the rise in sea levels.
3)Explained: Who were the Paikas of Odisha, and what will the Paika Memorial celebrate?
News:- President Ram Nath Kovind on Sunday (December 8) laid the foundation stone for a memorial to mark 200 years of the Paika Rebellion, an uprising against colonial rule that predates the rebellion of the sepoys in 1857, and is sometimes described as the first war of independence.
Paika Rebellion in Odisha’s Khurda in 1817 have referred to it as the “original” first war of Indian Independence.
So who were the Paikas, and why did they rise in revolt?
The Paikas (pronounced “paiko”, literally ‘foot soldiers’), were a class of military retainers had been recruited since the 16th century by kings in Odisha from a variety of social groups to render martial services in return for hereditary rent-free land (nish-kar jagirs) and titles.
The advent of the British and establishment of colonial rule brought new land revenue settlements, which led to the Paikas losing their estates.
Before and after the revolt of the Paikas in Khurda came risings in Paralakhemundi (1799-1814), Ghumusar (1835-36) and Angul (1846-47); the rebellion of Kondhs in Kalahandi (1855); and the Sabara Rebellion of 1856-57.
What happened during the rebellion of the Paikas?
In 1817, some 400 Kondhs descended from the Ghumusar area to rise in revolt against the British. Bakshi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar Mohapatra Bharamarbar Rai, the highest-ranking military general of Mukund Dev II, and erstwhile holder of the lucrative Rodanga estate, led an army of Paikas to join the uprising of the Kondhs.