Levels of Organisations in Ecology | TEMS IAS

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Lets See that with the Help of a diagram first , See below :-

Starting Level is individual :- Organism is an individual living being that has the ability to act or function independently. It may be plant, animal, bacterium, fungi, etc.

Population :- Population is a group of organisms usually of the same species, occupying a defined area during a specific time. The main limiting factors for the growth of a population are abiotic and biotic components.

Community :- In order to survive, individuals of any one species depend on individuals of different species with which they actively interact in several ways. For eg: Animals require plants for food and trees for shelter. Plants require animals for pollination, seed dispersal, and soil microorganism to facilitate nutrient supply. Communities in most instances are named after the dominant plant form (species). For example: A grassland community is dominated by grasses, though it may contain herbs, shrubs, and trees, along with associated animals of different species. A community is not fixed or rigid; communities may be large or small.

Types of Community On the basis of size and degree of relative independence communities may be divided into two types:

(a) Major Community :- These are large-sized, well organized and relatively independent. They depend only on the sun’s energy from outside and are independent of the inputs and outputs from adjacent communities. E.g: tropical ever green forest in the North-East

(b) Minor Communities:- These are dependent on neighbouring communities and are often called societies. They are secondary aggregations within a major community and are not therefore completely independent units as far as energy and nutrient dynamics are concerned. e.g: A mat of lichen on a cow dung pad.

ECOSYSTEM:- An ecosystem is defined as a structural and functional unit of biosphere consisting of community of living beings and the physical environment, both interacting and exchanging materials between them. It includes plants, trees, animals, fish, birds, micro-organisms, water, soil, and People.

Biosphere :- Biosphere is a part of the earth where life can exist. Biosphere represents a highly integrated and interacting zone comprising of atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water) and lithosphere (land). Atmosphere.

It is a narrow layer around the surface of the earth. If we visualise the earth to be the size of an apple the biosphere would be as thick as its skin. Life in the biosphere is abundant between 200 metres (660 feet) below the surface of the ocean and about 6,000 metres (20,000 feet) above sea level.

Biosphere is absent at extremes of the North and South poles, the highest mountains and the deepest oceans, since existing hostile conditions there do not support life. Occasionally spores of fungi and bacteria do occur at great height beyond 8,000 metres, but they are not metabolically active, and hence represent only dormant life. The energy required for the life within the biosphere comes from the sun.

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