Turkey is a large peninsula that bridges the continents of Europe and Asia. Turkey is surrounded on three sides by the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Aegean Sea. Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey, is built on land in the Bosporus seaway. The city is partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Turkey is larger than the state of Texas.
Do you know ? Once known as Cotton Castle, the white cliffs in Pamukkale in western Turkey are made of a calcium-rich mineral called travertine.
Turkey was a founding member of the United Nations, which was created after World War II. Turkey has been an associate member of the European Union since 1963, but it has not been accepted as a full member. Turkey is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) which is a defense alliance. Because of its location in the Middle East, Turkey is strategic in world affairs.
Kurds in southern Turkey started a guerrilla war in 1984 to create a Kurdish state. In 1995, Turkish troops invaded northern Iraq to attack Kurds.
The city of Constantinople was conquered by the Ottomans in 1453 and Turkey became part of the Ottoman Empire. After World War I, the country was invaded by Greece, which led to the Turkish war of Independence in 1920, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. In 1923, the Turkish assembly declared Turkey a republic.
The city formally became Istanbul in 1923. Turkey became a secular country, meaning there is a separation between religion and government. Women gained the right to vote in 1934.
Currency : Turkish Lira