Context: The monsoon has set over Kerala on 1st June as forecasted by the Indian Meteorological Department on May 28th.
Monsoon Forecast in India
The IMD issues operational forecast for the southwest monsoon seasonal (June to September) rainfall for the country in two stages. The first stage forecast is issued in April and the second stage forecast is issued in June.
|Criteria for Declaring Onset of Monsoon:There are three criteria which must be met for declaring the onset of Monsoon:· Rainfall: 8 of 14 designated meteorological stations in Kerala and Karnataka must register 2.5mm rain for two consecutive days.· Wind field: Depth of westerlies should be maintained up to 600 hPa, in the area between Lat. 10ºN and Long. 55ºE to 80ºE. The zonal wind speed over the area bounded by Lat. 5-10ºN, long. 70-80ºE should be of the order of 15 – 20 Kts. at 925 hPa.· Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR): INSAT derived OLR value should be below 200 wm-2 in the area between Lat. 5-10ºN and Long. 70-75ºE.|
These forecasts are prepared using state-of-the-art Statistical Ensemble Forecasting system (SEFS) and using the dynamic coupled Ocean-Atmosphere global Climate Forecasting System (CFS) model known as the Monsoon Mission Coupled Forecasting System (MMCFS).
Statistical Ensemble Forecasting system (SEFS): It relies on arriving at a prediction based on historical monsoon data coupled with data on sea-surface temperatures and winds.
Monsoon Mission Coupled Forecasting System (MMCFS):
- It is a coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling system that combine data from ocean, atmosphere and land for providing long range forecasting.
- It has been developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and NOAA National Weather Service, USA. As part of the Monsoon Mission project, the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) has developed the indigenous strategy of the model under National Monsoon Mission.
|National Monsoon Mission:Launched in 2012, it aims to develop a state-of-the-art dynamical prediction system for monsoon rainfall on different time scales. The responsibility of execution and coordination of the mission is bestowed upon the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune.|
Challenge before IMD in weather forecast:
- The IMD has been facing tough competition from domestic and international companies in providing weather-related services especially crop insurance, power distribution and short-range forecasts.
- In 2019, Monsoon Mission Coupled Forecast Model, failed to accurately forecast the excess rainfall in August-September 2019. This year accurate monsoon prediction is crucial given excess rainfall might accentuate locust plague in India which can affect the kharif crop.
|Indian Meteorological Department· It was established in 1875. It is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India.· It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology.|
Way Forward: It’s high time that IMD with improved science and forecasting, disseminates more precise localized weather forecasts for the wider population.
News: Bihar government is setting up India’s first Dolphin observatory in the Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary(VGDS).
- Gangetic river dolphin: It is India’s national aquatic animal found in parts of the Ganges, Meghna and Brahmaputra river systems in India, Nepal and Bangladesh.
- They are locally known as Susu which refers to the noise the dolphin is said to make when it breathes.
- Significance: They can be an indicator of the health of the freshwater ecosystem as they can only live in freshwater.
- IUCN Red List: Endangered
- Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule I
- CITES: Appendix I
- Threats: Declining water level, Climate Change, Poaching and increase in pollution level.
- Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary(VGDS): It is located in Bhagalpur District of Bihar.It was designated as a protected area for the Gangetic dolphins in 1991.
News: The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has launched three Electronics incentive schemes.
Scheme for Promotion of Manufacturing of Electronic Components and Semiconductors(SPECS):
- Aim: To help offset the disability for domestic manufacturing of electronic components and semiconductors in order to strengthen the electronics manufacturing ecosystem in the country.
- Under this, the government will provide a financial incentive of 25% on capital expenditure for a list of products that constitute the supply chain of electronic products such as electronic components, semiconductor, specialized sub-assemblies.
Modified Electronics Manufacturing Clusters (EMC 2.0) Scheme:
- Aim: To develop world class electronics manufacturing infrastructure by providing support for setting up of Electronics Manufacturing Clusters (EMCs) and Common Facility Centres(CFCs).
Production Linked Incentive Scheme(PLI):
- Aim: To offer production linked incentive to boost domestic manufacturing and attract large investments in mobile phone manufacturing and specified electronic components.
- Under this, the government will provide an incentive of 4% to 6% on goods manufactured in India and covered under target segments to eligible companies for a period of five years.
Facts: Delhi government has launched Delhi Corona App that aims to provide information related to availability of hospital beds and ventilators in the Union Territory of Delhi.
News: Indian Energy Exchange has launched its Real-Time Electricity Market (RTM) platform.
- Real-Time Electricity Market(RTM): It is a platform that enables consumers including power distribution companies to buy power on exchanges just an hour before delivery.
- Indian Energy Exchange(IEX): It is the first energy exchange in India providing a nationwide, automated trading platform for physical delivery of electricity, Renewable Energy Certificates and Energy Saving Certificates.It is regulated by the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC).