The Hindu Newspaper 26th April 2020

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  1. 1. Devanahalli Pomelo is on the Verge of getting extinct , is set to be getting rejuvenated in which state ?

A. Andhra Pradesh

B. Karnataka

C. Tamil Nadu

D. Kerala

2.With reference to office of whip consider the following statements:

  1. The office of whip is not mentioned in the constitution, but is mentioned in the Parliamentary statute.
  2. He is appointed by the speaker in Lok sabha and by the Chairman in the Rajya sabha.
  3. He regulates and monitors the behaviour of the party members in the Parliament.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Statement 1 – The office of ‘whip’, is mentioned neither in the Constitution of India nor in the Rules of the House nor in a Parliamentary Statute. It is based on the conventions of the parliamentary government.

Statement 2 – Every political party, whether ruling or Opposition has its own whip in the Parliament. He is appointed by the political party to serve as an assistant floor leader.

Statement 3 – He regulates and monitors the behaviour of the party members in the Parliament. The members are supposed to follow the directives given by the whip. Otherwise, disciplinary action can be taken.

3)Consider the following statements.

  1. The Constitution does not contain any procedure for the selection and appointment of the Prime Minister.
  2. Sometimes, the President can exercise his/her personal discretion in the selection and appointment of the Prime Minister.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

News :- Devanhalli Pomelo or Chakota.


Why in News

The Bangalore International Airport Limited (BIAL) will plant 500 Devanahalli Pomelo trees as part of its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The plantation drive is also part of the 50th anniversary of World Earth Day.

  • Devanahalli pomelo, a citrus variety, is almost on the brink of extinction.

Key Points

  • Devanahalli Pomelo has a Geographical Indication (GI) tag. It is grown in Devanahalli taluk, Banglore (Karnataka) and is popularly known as chakota.
  • The Devanahalli pomelo has a unique, sweet taste, unlike other local varieties which have a bitter taste.
  • Pomelo is a parent of the grapefruit and is also known by its scientific name Citrus Maxima. The fruit is rich in Vitamin C.

2) Rohtang Pass:- in Himachal Pradesh.

It is a high mountain pass on the eastern Pir Panjal Range of the Himalayas around 51 km from Manali. It connects the Kullu Valley with the Lahaul and Spiti Valleys of Himachal Pradesh, India.

3)First merger of two black holes with unequal masses detected:-

One of the latest yet rare observation is a merger of two black holes, captured by the scientists from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo interferometer in Pisa, Italy.

The news about the black hole merger was first shared on April 18 at the online meeting of the American Physical Society.

4)Coronavirus spares no major organ in the body :- Lungs are just the ground zero for the virus while the virus spreads itslethal tentacles to multiple organs — heart and blood vessels, kidneys, gut, and brain —not necessarily in one patient.

While about 80% of people infected with the virus either don’t display any symptoms or only mild symptoms, the remaining need hospitalisation and about 5% need ICU care.

The lungs:- The tiny air sacs in the lungs called the alveoli, where oxygen exchange between the lungs and blood vessels take place, are rich in ACE2 receptors.

Once the virus enters these cells, the immune system mounts an all out battle against the virus, disrupting the oxygen transfer and leaving the air sacs with fluid and dead cells, which makes breathing shallow and difficult and accompanied with coughing.

In some patients the condition deteriorate further, developing a condition called acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Oxygen levels drop sharply and breathing becomes harder.

Patients experiencing worsening conditions typically have their immune system overreacting and bringing on a “cytokine storm”, where the level of cytokines far exceed the levels needed resulting in healthy tissues being attacked. “Blood vessels leak, blood pressure drops, clotsform, and catastrophic organ failure can ensue.

Blood supply:- Heart is one of the organs that gets affected after lungs. The disruption seems to extend tothe blood itself, causing blood clots, which when breaks can restrict the blood supply to the brain causing stroke or artery supplying blood to the lungs causing pulmonary embolism.

Kidneys too are very vulnerable and experience in China shows that a sizeable fraction of patients may suffer from kidney failure.

5) U.S. Immigration ban and the impact :-

Why Such a Step:- U.S. economy, which, like many others across the world, has ground to a virtual halt in the face of the pandemic. The deeper context to the announcement is the fact that Mr. Trump is seeking re-election in the November 2020 election against the presumptive Democratic nominee, former U.S. Vice President Joe Biden.

What does it mean for visa applicants?The order is not expected to halt visa processing for many thousands of temporary employees, including a sizeable number of Indian nationals in the H-1B skilled worker category; agricultural workers classified underthe H-2A visa; and seasonal workers, who fall into the H-2B category.

Second, according to the White House, the policy will also likely carve out exemptions for certain categories of essential workers, including those in health care and who have a critical role to play in fighting the pandemic.

Third, exemptions are also being made for those who seek to immigrate via their immediate relatives. This includes spouses and minor children of U.S. citizens applying for green cards, or permanent residency.

Also, those who have already been granted permanent residence will not be impacted by this executive order.

Fourth, members of thearmed forces, those whoare immigrating for law enforcement reasons andare already in the pipeline,and those on the E-B5 programme, which requires individuals to invest at least $500,000 in U.S.real estate projects, will be considered.

How will it affect U.S. politics?Given the minimal impact on net jobs saved for U.S. workers, there is a real question regarding whether the ban was conceived of as a genuine policy measure or whether it is a diversionary tactic to mask the Trump administration’s failure to save more lives, and to bolster the President’s sinking political standing.

6)Why pathogens travel in search of a host

According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 60% of all infectious diseases in humans are zoonotic, and about 75% of all emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature.

Why are human beings at risk? The inevitable interaction between humans and livestock with wildlife exposes the human species to the risk of spillover of potential pathogens. For many zoonotic diseases or zoonoses, livestock serve as an epidemiological bridge between wildlife and human infections.

Reason why Interaction with wild is increasing :- The UNEP is also very clear that the drivers of zoonotic disease emergence are changes in the environment, usually as a result of human activities ranging from land use change; changes in animals or human hosts; and changes in pathogens, which are programmed to survive, and in the process exploit multiple hosts.

7) What are the concerns around the Aarogya Setu app?

First question is , Is aarogya setu 100% effective

The Aarogya Setu app faces the same issue as every other contact tracing technology that has come up during the pandemic period — it is people dependent.

It needs widespread usage and self reporting to be effective. Given that any number of total users will be a subset of smartphone owners in India, and there are bound to be variations in the levels of self reporting, the efficacy is not bulletproof.

The terms of use of the app also say as much, distancing the government from any failure on the part of the app in correctly identifying COVID-19 patients.

Jason Bay, the brain behind TraceTogether, a contact tracing app from Singapore which has been among themore successful ones, emphasised the point that “automated contact tracing is not a panacea.

Are there Privacy Concerns:- Definitely. First of all, the app exists in the privacy law vacuum that is India. With no legislation that spells out in detail how the online privacy of Indians is to be protected, Aarogya Setu users have little choice but to accept the privacy policy provided by the government.

Technical Loopholes:- Beyond the legal loopholes, there are technical loopholes as well.

The unique digital identity in AarogyaSetu is a static number, which increases the probability of identity breaches.

A better approach would be constantly changing digital identification keys like what Google and Apple deploy in their joint contact tracing technology.

8) For BRICS, challenges and opportunities

While each BRICS country is busy fighting the pandemic in its own way, Moscow is trying to make sure that it gains from the crisis.

The plans for 12th BRICS summit, scheduled for July 2123 in St. Petersburg, are still on.

BRICS should pay special attention to expanding foreign policy coordination, primarily at the UN.

Why is BRICS better than other groups :-BRICS looks better than other global governance institutions amidst the ongoing COVID crises. There is no blame game or pointing fingers within BRICS, rather there is only a common vision for intensifying cooperation, including in sectors like healthcare, social welfare.

G-7 vs BRICS:- While G7, created during the Cold War, is today used by the leading Western powers to strengthen their position in the competition with non West and to restore a rules based international order, BRICS is based on entirely different values, and adheres to the goals and objectives of the UN Charter and the idea of equality.

Is BRICS alive:- BRICS is very much alive, has progressed on developing a common position on the most important matters of the global economy and security and also got institutionalised with the setting up of the BRICS New Development Bank in 2015.

9)Assam NGO’s ‘smiley’ offer tickles donors:- A non-governmental organisation in western Assam’s Barpeta has turned to humour to tackle the impact ofthe nationwide COVID-19lockdown.

The initiative, says NGO Shubham, is for a cause — to collect funds to fight hunger—with donors getting a‘smile profile’ in return.

Members of the organisation got in touch with cartoonist Nituparna Rajbongshi to take forward the ideato gift each donor a caricature of their profile picture. And a few days go, the ‘Your photo can bring asmile’ campaign was born.





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