Q.1 Which of these rulers did not face the Mongols invasion?
B. Raziya Sultan
D. Jalaluddin Khalji
Q.2 Roca is the type of shifting cultivation practiced in
Q.3 Battle of Chandavar was fought between
A. Muizuddin Muhaamad and Jaichand
B. Prithviraj Chauhan and Jaichand
C. Jaichand and Nanuk Chandel
D. Prithviraj Chauhan and Muhammad Ghori
Answers: B, A, A
India China Border
India and China will intensify the quest for the settlement of the boundary question.
A statement from the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) issued after the 22nd round of the Sino-India boundary talks, held here on Saturday under the framework of Special Representatives’ dialogue, said the officials resolved to respect each other’s sensitivities for the sake of better ties.
The 22nd round was led by National Security Adviser Ajit Doval and Chinese State Councillor and Minister of Foreign Affairs Wang Yi.
Saturday’s border-related meeting was specially significant as China has been critical of India’s August 5 decision to end the special status of Jammu and Kashmir and bifurcation of the region into two Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh. India had retorted by reiterating Delhi’s claims over the Pakistan Occupied Kashmir by urging China to stop its activities in that region.
- India shares total boundary of around 3,488 kmwith China (second largest after Bangladesh).
- The Sino-Indian border is generally divided into three sectorsnamely: Western sector, Middle sector, and Eastern sector.
- 5 states Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh share border with China.
In the western sector, India shares about 2152 km long border with China. It is between Jammu and Kashmir and Xinjiang Province of China. In this sector, there is territorial dispute over Aksai Chin. Both countries went to war in 1962 over disputed territory of Aksai Chin. India claims it as part of Kashmir, while China claims it is part of Xinjiang.
The dispute over Aksai Chin can be traced back to the failure of the British Empire to clearly demarcate a legal border between China and its Indian colony. During the time of British rule in India, two borders between India and China were proposed Johnson’s Line and McDonald Line.
The Johnson’s line (proposed in 1865) shows Aksai Chin in Jammu and Kashmir i.e. under India’s control whereas McDonald Line (proposed in 1893) places it under China’s control. India considers Johnson Line as correct, rightful national border with China, while on the other hand, China considers the McDonald Line as the correct border with India.
At present, Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the line separating Indian areas of Jammu and Kashmir from Aksai Chin. It is concurrent with the Chinese Aksai Chin claim line.
In this sector, India shares about 625 km long boundary with China which runs along the watershed from Ladakh to Nepal. The states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand touch this border with Tibet (China) in this sector. Both sides do not have much disagreement over border in this area.
In this sector, India shares 1,140 km long boundary with China. It runs from the eastern limit of Bhutan to a point near the Talu Pass at the trijunction of Tibet, India and Myanmar. This boundary line is calledMcMahon Line. The boundary was established along the Himalayan crest of the northern watershed of the Brahmaputra, except where the Kemang, Subansiri, Dihang and Lohit rivers break through that watershed. China considers the McMahon Line illegal and unacceptable claiming that Tibetans representatives who had sign the 1914 Convention held in Shimla which delineated the Mc Mahon line on the map were not having rights to do so.
CITIZENSHIP AMENDMENT ACT
Protests against the contentious Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) continued in many parts of the country on Saturday, as the death toll from widespread violence in Uttar Pradesh rose to 16.
Fresh incidents of violence were reported from towns in Uttar Pradesh, while a bandh called by the Opposition Rashtriya Janata Dal in Bihar affected road and rail traffic.
WHAT DOES THE ACT CONTAINS?
The ACT seeks to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955 by seeking to grant citizenship to undocumented non-Muslims from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan who came to India on or before December 31, 2014.
The ACT says the six non-Muslim communities “shall not be treated as illegal migrant” for violating provisions under Passport Act, 1920 or the Foreigners Act, 1946 that pertains to foreigners entering and staying in India illegally.
The ACT shall not apply to tribal areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura as included in the sixth schedule of the Constitution and States of Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland protected by the Inner Line Permit (ILP).
ACT has reduce the time period required for naturalization from 11 years to 5 years for members of these communities.
NEW PARLIAMENT HOUSE
NEWS: A 9.5-acre plot opposite the existing Parliament House is likely to be used for the construction of a new Parliament building, with the government on Saturday moving to change the land use of the plot currently designated for recreational use to “Parliament House” in the Master Plan-2021 of Delhi.
The plot is opposite Parliament House, with Red Cross Road to its north, Raisina Road to its south and Parliament to its west, and is currently demarcated for recreational use in the form of a district park, according to the notification.
This comes at a time the Union Housing and Urban Affairs Ministry, under which the DDA operates, is preparing for a revamp of Parliament, the Central Vista and government offices in the area. While the Ministry is yet to publicly share the exact plan, sources have said the Prime Minister’s residence could be shifted closer to the PMO at South Block.
AIR QUALITY INDEX
NEWS:Delhi’s air quality stayed in the ‘severe’ category on Saturday and is expected to improve to ‘very poor’ on Sunday owning to higher wind speeds, said forecasting agency SAFAR.
The average PM2.5 level on Saturday was 244.9 ug/m3 — four times the safe limit of 60ug/m3 — in Delhi-NCR at 7 p.m., according to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). On November 3, the PM2.5 level had hit 625 ug/m3. The Air Quality Index (AQI) was 418 (severe).
ABOUT AIR QUALITY INDEX:
Air Quality Index is a number used by the government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted air currently is and how polluted it is expected to become.
There are six AQI categories, namely Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe.
AQI considers eight pollutants
- NH3, and
Air Quality Index was launched in 2014 by Central Pollution Control Board under Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change.
- SAFAR stands for System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting And Research
- It is a research program to build Air-Pollution mitigation strategies in consonance with nation’s economic development
- It is launched in greater metropolitan cities of India to provide location specific information on air quality in near real time
- SAFAR was developed indigenously by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune and operationalized by India Meteorological Department (IMD).
- Comes under Ministry of Earth Sciences
- Pollutants monitored: PM1, PM2.5, PM10, Ozone, CO, NOx (NO, NO2), SO2, , Methane (CH4), Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), VOC’s, Benzene, Mercury.
- Monitored Meteorological Parameters: UV Radiation, Rainfall, Temperature, Humidity, Wind speed, Wind direction.
POOR PERFORMANCE OF CBI IN CORRUPTION CASES
NEWS: Pulling up the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) for its “casual and laid-back” investigation into a corruption case, a court here has acquitted a junior engineer of the South Delhi Municipal Corporation (SDMC) and a daily wager.
The officers involved in the investigation did not do any independent probe about the allegations against the accused. They turned a blind eye to the crucial facts and official records of the south civic body and Palam police station.
It is a matter of concern that senior supervisory officers of the probe agency mechanically forwarded the chargesheet and failed to discharge supervisory duty diligently
- Central Bureau of Investigation was set up in 1963 by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
- Establishment of CBI was recommended by Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962-64).
- CBI is not a statutory body and derives its power from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946.
- With the enactment of the CVC Act 2003 superintendence of the CBI vests with the central government save investigations of offences under Prevention of Corruption Act 1988 in which the superintendence vests with the Central Vigilance Commission.
- Director of the CBI has been provided with the security of two year tenure in office by the CVC Act 2003.
- Under the Lokpal and Lokayukta Act of 2013 central government shall appoint the Director of the CBI on the recommendation of a three member committee consisting of the Prime Minister as the Chairperson, Leader of the opposition party in the Lok Sabha and Chief Justice of India or the judge of Supreme Court appointed by him.
- CBI acts as the National Central Bureau of Interpol in India.
Rajasthan has bagged four prizes for its performance under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
The Union Ministry of Rural Development has especially praised the State’s initiative of geotagging the NREGA works in Kota district.
Union Minister of Rural Development Narendra Singh Tomar gave away the prizes at a function in New Delhi over the weekend.
The prizes were given to the Zila Parishad officials and panchayat representatives of Kota, Dungarpur, Bhilwara and Jaisalmer districts.
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), also known as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MNREGS) is Indian legislation enacted on August 25, 2005.
The MGNREGA provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage.
The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Govt of India is monitoring the entire implementation of this scheme in association with state governments
Within 15 days of submitting the application or from the day work is demanded, wage employment will be provided to the applicant.
Right to get unemployment allowance in case employment is not provided within fifteen days of submitting the application or from the date when work is sought.
Receipt of wages within fifteen days of work done.
EFFECT OF MONSOON ON INDIAN HISTORY
NEWS: A recent study by researchers at Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (IIT-KGP) has revealed that abrupt changes in the Indian monsoon in the last 900 years decided the course of human history in the subcontinent.
Deficient rainfall led to the collapse of the Mansabdari system, started by Mughal emperor Akbar, in the late 17th century.
Similarly, drought interspersed with violent monsoon rains sounded the death knell for the Khmer empire of south-east Asia in the 15th century.
Several dynasties, such as the Sena in Bengal, Solanki in Gujarat in the mid-13th century and Paramara and Yadav in the early to mid-14th century – all of which flourished during abundant rainfall — declined during the dry phases of Indian summer monsoon (ISM), suggesting role of the climate in the socio-political crisis, the study revealed.
The paper published in international journal PALEO 3 highlights three phases in the 900-year stretch — Medieval Climate Anomaly from 950 CE to 1350 CE, Little Ice Age from 1350 CE to 1800 CE and Current Warm Period from 1800 CE till today. The paper highlights strong monsoon during Medieval Climate Anomaly and Current Warm Period and phases of weak and strong monsoon in Little Ice Age.
The Supreme Court on Saturday issued notice informing that review petitions challenging its September 28, 2018 judgment allowing women of menstruating age entry into the Sabarimala temple is likely to come up before a Bench of seven judges in January 2020.
The notice does not specify the date of hearing, nor the composition of the Bench. It merely asks the lawyers involved in the case to file four more complete set of paperbooks containing documents and pleadings.
ABOUT SABRIMALA TEMPLE
Sabrimala temple is a Hindu pilgrimage center located in the Periyar Tiger Reserve in the Western Ghat region of Pathanamthitta District of Kerala.
The famous pilgirmage is located in the 18 hills.
The shrine at Sabrimala is ancient temple of Ayyappan.
NEWS: As many as 282 people have died while cleaning sewers and septic tanks in the country between 2016 and November 2019, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment said in a response to a question by Rajya Sabha MP Vandana Chavan.
Among the States, Tamil Nadu has recorded 40 deaths, the highest in number, in these four years. This is followed by Haryana with 31 deaths, and Gujarat and Delhi with 30 deaths each. Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh have recorded 27 deaths each in the same period.
Sanitation being a State subject, the people for cleaning of sewers and septic tanks are employed by local bodies. States and Union Territories have been requested to ensure filing of FIRs and prosecution in all cases of employment of persons for hazardous cleaning of sewers as per the provisions of The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act 2013.
Speaking about the deaths, Bezwada Wilson, national convener of Safai Karmachari Andolan, an organisation working to eradicate manual scavenging, said that the deaths are much higher than what is reported in the official statistics.
In the same response, the Central government has put on record that there are about 60,440 manual scavengers identified across the country, in 17 States.
More than half of them, about 35,472, have been identified from Uttar Pradesh alone.
The Parliament had enacted the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 which came in force from December 6, 2013.
LAND RIGHTS LAWS IN ASSAM
Indigenous communities in Assam may soon be prevented from transferring land to the non-indigenous, according to Assam’s Health and Finance Minister Himanta Biswa Sarma.
In a move that is believed to be a direct fallout of the protests against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, the State Cabinet headed by Chief Minister Sarbananda Sonowal took a slew of decisions that are aimed at assuaging the indigenous communities.
Prime among them was the announcement about introducing a Bill in the next session of the State Assembly for ensuring the protection of land rights of the indigenous people.
The Cabinet also resolved to request the Centre for amending Article 345 of the Constitution for declaring Assamese as the State language of Assam excluding Barak Valley, BTAD and the hill districts.
The focus of the Cabinet meeting was on tribal areas and the six communities — Adivasi (”tea tribe”), Chutiya, Koch-Rajbongshi, Moran, Matak and Tai-Ahom — who are demanding Scheduled Tribe status.
INDIA- MALAYSIA RELATIONS
The Centre on Saturday summoned the Malaysian envoy to India and lodged a “solemn protest” after Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad made observations critical of the Citizenship Amendment Act.
“It was conveyed that such remarks are neither in keeping with accepted diplomatic practice of non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, nor with the state of our bilateral relations,” a government source said after the Malaysian Charge D’Affaires was summoned.
Speaking after the Islamic Summit in Kuala Lumpur, the Malaysian leader had said the police action against Indians protesting over the Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019 was “very unfortunate”.
INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT
The International Criminal Court (ICC)’s chief prosecutor said on Friday that she wanted to open a full investigation into alleged war crimes in the Palestinian territories, sparking a furious reaction from Israel and condemnation from the U.S.
The Palestinians welcomed the move by the ICC as a “long overdue step” following a nearly five-year preliminary probe by the prosecutor into the situation since the 2014 war in Gaza.
- Governed by an international treaty called ‘The Rome Statute’, the ICC is the world’s first permanent international criminal court.
- It investigates and, where warranted, tries individuals charged with the gravest crimes of concern to the international community: genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and the crime of aggression.
- Through international criminal justice, ICC aims to hold those responsible for their crimes and to help prevent these crimes from happening again.
- India is not a party to Rome Statute along with US and China.
- Recently Malaysia has ratified the Rome Statute and became the 124th State party to the ICC.
The Rome Statute, grants the ICC jurisdiction over four main crimes:
- The crime of Genocide
- Crimes against Humanity
- War crimes
- Crime of Aggression
- The ICC is intended to complement, not to replace, national criminal systems; it prosecutes cases only when States do not are unwilling or unable to do so genuinely.
- ICC is not a UN organization but is has a cooperation agreement with the United Nations.
- When a situation is not within the Court’s jurisdiction, the United Nations Security Council can refer the situation to the ICC granting it jurisdiction. This has been done in the situations in Darfur (Sudan) and Libya.
NEWS: VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd. (VECV), a joint venture between the Volvo Group and Eicher Motors, said it hoped demand would improve in the January-March quarter as a result of pre-buying by customers ahead of BS VI norms kicking in from the next financial year.
ABOUT BS NORMS:-
- Bharat stage norms are emission standards instituted by Government to regulate output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles.
- The standards and timeline for implementation are set by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) under Ministry of Environment & Forests and climate change.
- The standards are based on European regulations and were first introduced in2000.
- Since then, various stages Bharat Stage compatible fuel and ungraded and modified vehicles were introduced throughout the country.
- The harmful emissions that are identified for regulations in different Bharat Stages (BS) are carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbons (HC), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Particulate matter (PM).
- Each stage specifies a certain limit on the pollutants released, Higher the Bharat Stage goes lesser it emits pollutants. BS-I, BS-II and BS-III stages were launched in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively.
BS VI Norms
- The BS-IV compliant fuels have Sulphur concentration of 50 parts per million (ppm).
- It will come down to 10 ppm in BS-VI compliant fuels and auto engines.
- It will result in lower level of harmful emissions and reduced incidence of lung diseases.
- Moreover, switch to BS-VI norms will also reduce concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbons, nitrous oxide (NOx) and particulate matter from emissions.
- Will increase the prices of cars and other automobiles.
- the oil marketing sector has said the retail price increase for BS-VI fuel could be anything from a few paise per litre to ₹2.
ISSUE: RULING OF NCLAT ON TATA MISTRY DISPUTE
WHAT NCLAT HAS SAID?
On December 18, the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal or NCLAT (as the appellate tribunal is known) declared as “illegal” the October 2016 removal of Cyrus P. Mistry as Executive Chairman of Tata Sons Limited and ordered his reinstatement to the post.
What is the NCLAT?
As part of a comprehensive revamp of the adjudication of corporate law disputes, the NCLAT was constituted with effect from June 1, 2016, for hearing appeals against the orders of the NCLT, which, in turn, simultaneously replaced the erstwhile Company Law Board.
Constituted under Section 410 of the Companies Act, 2013, the appellate tribunal was conceived as the dedicated appeals forum for resolving corporate law disputes and speeding up the resolution by taking over the role hitherto played by overburdened High Courts in adjudicating such appeals.
Besides deciding on prayers against the NCLT’s rulings, including in matters relating to the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), the NCLAT also serves as the appellate body for those aggrieved by decisions made by the Competition Commission of India or orders passed by the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India under Sections 202 and 211 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC).
Established in New Delhi, the NCLAT initially comprised five members: two members each on the judicial and technical sides and the Chairperson Justice S.J. Mukhopadhaya.
As part of its efforts to strengthen the entire NCLT and NCLAT apparatus with a view to further reducing pendency, the Centre this year added a total of four new members to the NCLAT — two each in judicial and technical capacities. The government has also decided to set up a bench of the appellate tribunal at Chennai, Minister of State for Finance and Corporate Affairs Anurag Singh Thakur said in a written reply to a question in Lok Sabha on December 2, 2019
While a member (Judicial) of the NCLAT has to have been a judge of a High Court or a judicial member of the NCLT for five years, a technical member ought to possess proven ability and standing with domain knowledge and experience of not less than 25 years in areas such as law, industrial finance, industrial management, investment, accountancy, labour matters or corporate restructuring.
The chairperson must have been a judge of the Supreme Court of India or a Chief Justice of a High Court.
CAN NCLAT DECISION BE CHALLENGED?
A party aggrieved by a ruling by any of the NCLT’s numerous benches can file an appeal against it within 45 days of receipt of a copy of the order, with a further 45 days allowed if the NCLAT is satisfied that the appellant had sufficient cause that prevented the filing of the appeal within the stipulated period.
The NCLAT’s verdicts can in turn be challenged on a question of law in the Supreme Court, within a 60-day window.
ISSUE: NPR, NRIC AND CENSUS
What is the National Population Register (NPR)?
The NPR is a database containing a list of all usual residents of the country. Its objective is to have a comprehensive identity database of people residing in the country. It is generated through house-to-house enumeration during the “house-listing” phase of the census, which is held once in 10 years.
The last census was in 2011, and the next will be done in 2021 (and will be conducted through a mobile phone application, according to the Home Minister, Amit Shah).
A usual resident for the purposes of NPR is a person who has resided in a place for six months or more, and intends to reside there for another six months or more
HOW IT IS DIFFERENT FROM CENSUS?
The census involves a detailed questionnaire — there were 29 items to be filled up in the 2011 census — aimed at eliciting the particulars of every person, including age, sex, marital status, children, occupation, birthplace, mother tongue, religion, disability and whether they belonged to any Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tribe. On the other hand, the NPR collects basic demographic data and biometric particulars.
What is the legal basis for the NPR?
While the census is legally backed by the Census Act, 1948, the NPR is a mechanism outlined in a set of rules framed under the Citizenship Act, 1955.
Section 14A was inserted in the Citizenship Act, 1955, in 2004, providing for the compulsory registration of every citizen of India and the issue of a “national identity card” to him or her. It also said the Central government may maintain a “National Register of Indian Citizens”.
The Registrar General India shall act as the “National Registration Authority” (and will function as the Registrar General of Citizen Registration). Incidentally, the Registrar General is also the country’s Census Commissioner.
The NPR is the first step towards establishing the NRIC.
What will happen after the NPR is compiled?
Out of the NPR, a set of all usual residents of India, the government proposes to create a database of “citizens of India”. Thus, the “National Register of Indian Citizens” (NRIC) is a sub-set of the NPR. The NRIC will be prepared at the local, sub-district, district and State levels after verifying the citizenship status of the residents.
What are the documents that would help establish citizenship?
The government is yet to notify a date for generation of the NRIC. It has not yet prescribed rules for the sort of documentary proof that would be required to prove citizenship. The government says any document that shows date of birth or place of birth, or both, will be sufficient. And that common documents will be accepted, and those unable to produce documents may produce witnesses or other proof supported by members of the community.
What is the relationship between the NPR and the Citizenship (Amendment) Act?
There is no direct link. But remarks by the Home Minister that the CAA would be followed by the NRC has given rise to fears that when people are excluded from the final citizenship register, the CAA may help non-Muslims take the CAA route to apply for citizenship, and leave Muslims with no option. However, the government seeks to allay these fears.
HERBICIDE POLLUTION DETECTION
NEWS: In an extraordinary waste-to-wealth feat, researchers from Assam have used the commonly found invasive plant water hyacinth to produce carbon nanoparticles.
These extremely tiny (less than 10 nanometre) particles can be used for detecting a commonly used herbicide — pretilachlor. The nanoparticles were found to be selective and sensitive for the detection of the herbicide.
The team harvested water hyacinth leaves, removed the chlorophyll, dried and powdered it. The sieved powder underwent several treatments including heating at 150 degree Celsius to convert it to carbon dots.
Based on this study, the group is now developing a paper strip–based sensor for on-site detection of pretilachlor.