Q.1 Paramhansa Mandali was founded by
A. Swami Vivekananda
B. Ramakrishna Paramhansa
C. Dadoba Pandurang
Q.2 Arrange the following organizations in the chronological order of their formation
1. Atmiya Sabha
2. Satyasodhak Samaj
3. Arya Samaj
4. Ramakrishna Mission
Select the correct options
Q.3 All India Trade Union Congress was founded by
A. J L Nehru
B. Mahatma Gandhi
C. Narayan Malahar Joshi
D. B R Ambedkar
NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) on Friday ordered an investigation into the deaths in police action of four men who had been arrested in the case of the gang-rape and murder of a veterinary doctor in Telangana.
Taking suo motu cognisance of media reports that the four accused were killed by the police early on Friday, the NHRC said the incident required investigation.
- NHRC of India is an independent statutory body established on 12 October, 1993 as per provisions of Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993, later amended in 2006.
- Its headquarter is located in New Delhi.
- It is the watchdog of human rights in the country, i.e. the rights related to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by Indian Constitution or embodied in the international covenants and enforceable by courts in India.
- It was established in conformity with the Paris Principles, adopted for the promotion and protection of human rights in Paris (October, 1991) and endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 20 December, 1993.
Functions and Powers of NHRC
- NHRC investigates grievances regarding the violation of human rights either suo moto or after receiving a petition.
- It has the power to interfere in any judicial proceedings involving any allegation of violation of human rights.
- It can visit any jail or any other institution under the control of the State Government to see the living conditions of the inmates and to make recommendations thereon.
- It can review the safeguards provided under the constitution or any law for the protection of the human rights and can recommend appropriate remedial measures.
- NHRC undertakes and promotes research in the field of human rights.
- NHRC works to spread human rights literacy among various sections of society and promotes awareness of the safeguards available for the protection of these rights through publications, media, seminars and other means.
- The Commission takes an independent stand while providing opinions for the protection of human rights within the parlance of the Constitution or in law for the time being enforced.
- It has the powers of a civil court and can grant interim relief.
- It also has the authority to recommend payment of compensation or damages.
- NHRC credibility is duly reflected in large number of complaints received every year and the trust reposed in it by the citizens.
- It can recommend to both the central and state governments to take suitable steps to prevent the violation of Human Rights. It submits its annual report to the President of India who causes it to be laid before each House of Parliament.
SAKHI ONE STOP CENTER SCHEME
NEWS: No Sakhi One-Stop Centre under Nirbhaya Fund in Delhi
Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD), has formulated a Centrally Sponsored Scheme for setting up One Stop Centre, a sub – scheme of Umbrella Scheme for National Mission for Empowerment of women including Indira Gandhi Mattritav Sahyaog Yojana
The objectives of the Scheme are:
- To provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, both in private and public spaces under one roof.
- To facilitate immediate, emergency and non – emergency access to a range of services including medical, legal, psychological and counselling support under one roof to fight against any forms of violence against women
WHAT WILL BE PROVIDED?
- Medical assistance – Women affected by violence would be referred to the nearest Hospital for medical aid/examination which would be undertaken as per the guidelines and protocols developed by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- Assistance to women in lodging FIR /NCR/DIR
- Psycho – social support/ counselling – A skilled counsellor providing psycho – social counselling services would be available on call. This c ounselling process will give women confidence and support to address violence or to seek justice for the violence perpetuated. Counsellors shall follow a prescribed code of ethics, guidelines and protocols in providing counselling services.
- Legal aid and counselling – To facilitate access to justice for women affected by violence, legal aid and counselling would be provided at OSC through empanelled Lawyers or National/ State/District Legal Service Authority. The aggrieved woman would be provided with an advocate of her choice in case she wants to engage the same to assist the State Prosecutors in trying her case. It would be the responsibility of the Lawyer /Prosecutor to simplify legal procedures for the aggrieved woman and advocate for her exemption from court hearings. In case the trial or inquiry relates to an offence of rape as defined under section 376, 376A – D IPC, it would be the duty of the Prosecutors trying the case to complete the inquiry or trial as far as possible within a period of two months from the date of filing of charge sheet.
- Shelter – The OSC will provide temporary shelter facility to aggrieved women. For long term shelter requirements, arrangements will be made with Swadhar Greh/Short Stay Homes (managed/affiliated with government/NGO). Women affected by violence along with their children (girls of all ages and boys up till 8 years of age) can avail temporary shelter at the OSC for a maximum period of 5 days. The admissibility of any woman to the temporary shelter would be at the discretion of Centre Administrator.
- Video Conferencing Facility – To facilitate speedy and hassle free police and court proceedings the OSC will provide video conferencing facility (through Skype, Google Conferencing etc.). Through this facility if the aggrieved woman wants, she can record her statement for police/ courts from OSC itself using audio – video electronic means as prescribed under sections 161(3), 164(1) and 275(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure and section 231(1) in line with Order XVIII Rule 4 of the Code of Civil Procedure. This facility will be provided only after consultation among Superintendent of Police, District and Sessions Judge of the concerned district (place of incident).
NEWS: Justice N.V. Ramana, the second senior-most judge of the Supreme Court and executive chairman of the National Legal Services Authority of India (NALSA), on Friday underscored the need for giving legal assistance to the marginalised as early as when a person is called to a police station on suspicion.
The National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) has been constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 to provide free Legal Services to the weaker sections of the society and to organize Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes.
NALSA lays down policies, principles, guidelines and frames effective and economical schemes for the State Legal Services Authorities to implement the Legal Services Programmes throughout the country. Primarily, the State Legal Services Authorities, District Legal Services Authorities, Taluk Legal Services Committees, etc. have been asked to discharge the following main functions on regular basis:
- To Provide Free and Competent Legal Services to the eligible persons;
- To organize Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes and
- To organize legal awareness camps in the rural areas.
NEWS: One of the main reasons why the Indian Railways decided to halt the production of Train18 rakes at the Integral Coach Factory (ICF) here is that the self-propelled train set is heavier and consumes more power compared to Shatabdi Express on the same route and speed, according to a note prepared by the Railway Board.
Chief Administrative Officer, Rail Wheel Plant, Bela, Shubhranshu, has written to the Chairman, Railway Board, that the axle load of Vande Bharat was less than 17 tonnes, which was similar to world-class trains. The Vande Bharat had the potential to evolve into a perfect train, built in India for Indian needs. Increase in power consumption was a result of high acceleration and any train set, indigenous or imported, would demand so.
ABOUT TRAIN 18
- Next generation Shatabdi.
- Built by Integral Coach Factory, Chennai.
- It does not have locomotive to pull the coaches – it is a self propelled semi high speed train set.
- Train has become India’s fastest train by hitting the speed of 180 kmph during a trial run on the section of Delhi Rajdhani routes.
- It will replace Shatabdi trains and will run between Delhi and Varanasi.
- It is an engine less train.
FIRST EDITORIAL: RETRIBUTIVE JUSTICE
ISSUE: ENCOUNTER BY HYDERABAD POLICE
WHAT HAD HAPPENED IN HYDERABAD?
In an encounter Cyberabad Police had killed all the four accused in Hyderabad gang rape case.
The police claim that two of the accused snatched their weapons and fired at them when the four had been taken to the crime scene to reconstruct the sequence of events late after midnight, and that they killed them in self-defence.
The National Human Rights Commission has deputed a fact-finding team to Hyderabad to probe the incident.
Rule of Law and Procedure should be maintained no matter what the public pressure is.
The guidelines set by the Supreme Court to deal with such events, including the need for an independent investigation, must be strictly observed to get to the bottom of this sordid episode.
Existing laws on sexual crimes and punishment need better application, but a recourse to brutal retribution as suggested unwisely by many is no solution.
On the contrary, the political sanction of “encounter killings” to deliver swift retribution would only be a disincentive for the police to follow due process and may even deter them from pursuing the course of justice.
Far from ensuring justice to the victims, bending the law in such cases would only undermine people’s faith in the criminal justice system.
LEAD ARTICLE: MEALS THAT CAN EDUCATE THE YOUNG
ISSUE: ANALYSIS OF THE FUNCTIONING OF THE MID DAY MEAL SCHEME
ABOUT MID DAY MEAL SCHEME
- The Midday Meal Scheme comes under the HRD Ministry’s Department of School Education and Literacy.
- Launched in the year 1995 as a centrally sponsored scheme, it provides that every child within the age group of six to fourteen years studying in classes I to VIII who enrolls and attends the school, shall be provided hot cooked meal having nutritional standards of 450 calories and 12 gm of protein for primary (I- V class) and 700 calories and 20 gm protein for upper primary (VI-VIII class), free of charge every day except on school holidays.
- The scheme covers all government and government aided schools and also Madarsa and Maqtabs supported under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA).
PROBLEMS RELATED TO MID DAY MEAL SCHEME
First, there are cases of bad food, leading to food poisoning.
Second there is cheating when students are served cheapest quality food, cooked by cheapest cook available.
Third category, pertaining to caste bias and discrimination.
WHAT THIS SCHEME TEACHES CHILDREN
Importance of Nutrition
Gandhian principle of doing one’s own work
Caste based discrimination needs to be done away with
SECOND ARTICLE: SEEKING TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION IN CHATTISGARH
ISSUE: REPORT OF THE V K AGARWAL COMMISSION ON SARKEGUDA KILLINGS
WHAT HAD HAPPENED IN THE SARKEGUDA?
17 unarmed villagers, including six minors, were killed by security forces at Sarkeguda village in Chhattisgarh,
FINDINGS OF THE COMMISSION
Justice V.K. Agarwal, a retired judge of the Madhya Pradesh High Court, has established that the CRPF and police version of events was false, the official police enquiry into the deaths was manipulated,
15 of the villagers were killed at close quarters while fleeing in a ‘totally disproportionate and unwarranted use of force.”
The judge discounted testimonies by both sides, and relied only on circumstantial evidence.
There has been no progress on addressing the landscape of widespread human rights violations, deaths, rapes and arson caused by Salwa Judum and Operation Green Hunt, despite severe indictments by the National Human Rights Commission in 2008 as well as by the Supreme Court in 2011.
The Supreme Court’s 2011 ban on the use of surrendered Naxalites in frontline counterinsurgency has also been wilfully ignored by both the BJP and Congress governments, and the Court, often so mindful of its dignity, has let this contempt pass without hearing for the last seven years.
The Congress should celebrate its first anniversary in power in Chhattisgarh by announcing a Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which would catalogue and compensate for all deaths, and prosecute those responsible. Action against security personnel in Sarkeguda must be the start, but must not be allowed to become the end.
SECOND EDITORIAL: CLIMATE WARNINGS
ISSUE: REPORTS BY IPCC SCIENTISTS
WHY IN NEWS?
Two important reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), on the impact of higher global temperatures on land, oceans and the cryosphere
FINDINGS OF THE REPORT
Report states that even under the most optimistic scenarios, human health, livelihoods, biodiversity and food systems face a serious threat from climate change.
In the case of oceans and frozen areas on land, accelerated rates of loss of ice, particularly in Greenland, the Arctic and the Antarctic, will produce a destructive rise in sea levels; increases in tropical cyclone winds, rainfall and extreme waves, combined with relative sea level rise, will exacerbate catastrophic sea level events.
For countries with a long coastline, including India, is that local sea level anomalies that occurred once in a century may become annual events, due to the projected global mean sea level rise over the 21st century.
Urgent action should be taken by all countries to reduce the carbon emissions.
Industrialised nations to provide liberal, transparent funding to developing countries under the Paris Agreement, reinforcing the principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities, and recognising that rich countries reduced the carbon space available to the poor.
NEWS: The Rajya Sabha on Friday discussed two private members’ Bills to do away with the cap on election spending by candidates and to establish a committee on foreign investment to prevent threats to national security.
A candidate can spend upto Rs.70 lakh, depending on the state they are contesting the Lok Sabha election from. Expenditure limit in the bigger states like Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Karnataka etc. is Rs. 70 lakh.
The expenditure limit in smaller states & UTs like; Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Sikkim, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadar and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Lakshadweep and Puducherry was kept at Rs. 54 lakhs.
EXCEPTION: Limit for Delhi Lok Sabha election is also Rs. 70 lakh.
Limit for Assembly Elections;
Expenditure limit in the Assembly Elections of the bigger Indian states like, UP, Maharashtra, Bihar, west Bengal and Andhra Pradesh is set to Rs. 28 lakhs while this limit is kept at Rs. 20 lakhs for smaller states like; Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura and Puducherry.
NEWS: Many Syrian Kurds have highlighted that they are being killed.
Kurds are an Iranian ethnic group native to Western Asia. Geographically, this mostly mountainous area, known as Kurdistan includes southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria. There are also exclaves of Kurds in central Anatolia and Khorasan.
INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING
Saudi Aramco shares will start trading on December 11, the Saudi securities exchange Tadawul said in a statement on Friday.
Saudi Arabia’s state oil giant priced its initial public offering at 32 riyals ($8.53) per share on Thursday, raising $25.6 billion and beating Alibaba Group Holding Ltd’s record $25 billion listing in 2014.
An initial public offering (IPO) refers to the process of offering shares of a private corporation to the public in a new stock issuance. Public share issuance allows a company to raise capital from public investors.
NEWS: Saudi Arabia and Russia spearheaded a deal on Friday in which OPEC and its allies committed to some of the deepest oil output cuts this decade aiming to avert oversupply and support prices.
OPEC and allied producers, the so-called OPEC+, pump more than 40% of the world’s oil.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is an intergovernmental organization of 13 nations founded in 1960 in Baghdad and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna.
Originally it had five members: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arbaia and Venezuela. Later Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Libya, Nigeria, and UAE became members.
OPEC’s mission is to:-
- coordinate and unify the petroleum policies of its member countries and ensure the stabilization of oil markets,
- secure an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consumers,
- steady income to producers and a fair return on capital for those investing in the petroleum industry.
The National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) System will be available round-the-clock from December 16, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) said on Friday.
There will be 48 half-hourly batches every day. The settlement of the first batch will commence after 00:30 hours and the last batch will end at 00:00 hours.
The first settlement will take place after 00:30 hours on December 16, the RBI said.
- NEFT is an electronic funds transfer system maintained by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Started in November 2005, the setup was established and maintained by Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology (IDRBT).
- NEFT enables bank customers in India to transfer funds between any two NEFT-enabled bank accounts on a one-to-one basis. It is done via electronic messages.
- Unlike Real-time gross settlement (RTGS), fund transfers through the NEFT system do not occur in real-time basis.
K VIJAY KUMAR: Appointed as Senior Security Advisor to Union Home Minister.
GRETA THUNBERG: Climate Change activist from Sweden. She has joined the climate protesters at Spain Madrid.
QUESTION FOR MAINS
Q.1 Right to Dissent is the Core of Democracy. Comment