Q.1 “INS Nilgiri” recently seen in news is a:
(a) Stealth frigate
(b) Nuclear powered submarine
(c) Aircraft Carrier
(d) Anti-piracy ship
Q.2 Consider the following statements regarding
Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus:
1. EEHV is as a type of herpes virus that
can cause hemorrhagic disease in young
2. The disease is usually fatal, with a short
course of 28-35 hours.
3. There is no cure for herpes viruses in
Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Q.3 “Bru refugees” recently seen in news are
related to which state of India?
(d) Arunachal Pradesh
ANSWER: A, D, A
CITIZENSHIP AMENDMENT ACT
The Supreme Court on Wednesday said the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), 2019, is “uppermost in everybody’s minds”, but refused to stay the law without hearing the government first.
A three-judge Bench led by Chief Justice of India (CJI) Sharad A. Bobde did not heed pleas to even postpone the process of collecting population data to identify illegal migrants or “doubtful citizens” on the basis of their religion.
The CJI indicated that the CAA challenge may eventually be referred to a Constitution Bench for a decision on merits.
The Bench issued notice on at least 80 more fresh petitions filed for and against the CAA. It gave the government four weeks to file its response. The government urged the court to “freeze” the number of petitions filed in the case.
WHAT DOES THE ACT CONTAINS?
The ACT seeks to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955 by seeking to grant citizenship to undocumented non-Muslims from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan who came to India on or before December 31, 2014.
The ACT says the six non-Muslim communities “shall not be treated as illegal migrant” for violating provisions under Passport Act, 1920 or the Foreigners Act, 1946 that pertains to foreigners entering and staying in India illegally.
The ACT shall not apply to tribal areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura as included in the sixth schedule of the Constitution and States of Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland protected by the Inner Line Permit (ILP).
ACT has reduce the time period required for naturalization from 11 years to 5 years for members of these communities.
India slipped 10 places to 51st position in the 2019 Democracy Index’s global ranking, according to The Economist Intelligence Unit, which cited “erosion of civil liberties” in the country as the primary cause for the downtrend.
Based on their total score, the countries are classified as one of four types of regime:
full democracy(scores greater than 8);
flawed democracy — scores greater than 6 and less than or equal to 8;
hybrid regime — scores greater than 4 and less than or equal to 6;
authoritarian regime — scores less than or equal to 4″.
India was included in the “flawed democracy” category.
NEWS: The Assam Rifles has refuted the allegations by an IPS officer that its troops had harassed, assaulted and misbehaved with her during a routine check of vehicles in Manipur’s Tengnoupal district on January 18. Acting on a complaint, the Manipur State Commission for Women on Monday summoned an Assam Rifles jawan, identified as P.K. Pandey.
ABOUT ASSAM RIFLES
Assam Rifles is the oldest paramilitary force in India founded in 1835.
Guards Indo -Myanmar Border under the One Border One Force Policy of Government of India.
India shares 1643km border with Myanmar and four north eastern states of ARUNACHAL PRADESH, NAGALAND, MANIPUR AND MIZORAM shares border with Myanmar.
Assam Rifles is under the administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs and operational control of Ministry of Defence.
TROLLING OF WOMEN POLITICIANS
Twitter is a toxic space for Indian women politicians, who face substantially higher abuse on the social media platform than their counterparts in the U.S. and the U.K., according to a recent study. In fact, one out of every seven tweets mentioning them is problematic or abusive, with many women targeted by a relentless flow of threats and sexist, religious, racist and casteist slurs.
While all women are targeted, Muslim women politicians faced 55% more abuse than others, according to the study of 95 politicians carried out by Amnesty India during the 2019 Lok Sabha election.
Women from marginalised castes, unmarried women, and those from non-BJP parties faced a disproportionate share of abuse.
The Troll Patrol India study trained volunteers to sift through the tweets mentioning these 95 women between March and May 2019.
About Amnesty International
- Amnesty International is a London based Non-Governmental Organisation founded in 1961.
- The organization aims to create a world where every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards.
- The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted in 1948. It recognized the fundamental human rights universally for the first time.
- It also conducts research, generates action to prevent grave abuses of human rights and demands justice for those whose rights have been violated.
- The organization was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1977 for its “Defence of human dignity against torture” and the United Nations Prize in the field of Human Rights in 1978.
INTERPOL BLUE NOTICE
The Interpol has issued a Blue Corner Notice seeking information about controversial self-styled godman Nithyananda, who fled the country amid allegations of rape and wrongful confinement of children.
A Blue Corner Notice is issued by the international police cooperation body to collect additional information from its member countries about a person’s identity, location or activities in relation to a crime.
- Interpol is global police co-operation agency and a non-governmental organization (NGO).
- It was established as the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) in 1923.
- Its headquartered is located at Lyon, France.
- It is the world’s largest international police organization, with 194 member countries (including India).
- It is second-largest international organization after United Nations in terms of international representation.
- Its work focuses on public safety and battling terrorism, crimes against humanity, genocide, war crimes, environmental crime etc.
- It seeks to facilitate international police cooperation even where diplomatic relations do not exist between particular countries.
- It ensures that police around world have access to tools and services necessary to do their jobs effectively.
- It also provides targeted training, expert investigative support, relevant data and secure communications channels.
The 8 types of notices and their objectives are:
1. Red Corner Notice
This notice is issued to seek the arrest or provisional arrest of wanted criminals, with the intention of extradition of the culprits.
- Yellow Notice
This notice is issued to locate missing persons, often minors or to seek help in identifying persons who are unable to identify themselves (in case of minors and people of unsound mind).
- Blue Notice
This notice is issued to the country the criminal belongs to and to collect more information about a person’s identity or activities related to the crime.
- Black Notice
Black Notice is issued by INTERPOL to seek information of unidentified bodies.
- Purple Notice
This category aids Interpol’s efforts to tackle environmental criminals. This notice is issued for those criminals who hunts wild animals and sell their body parts in international market.
Green Notice is issued to provide warnings and intelligence about persons who have committed criminal offences and are likely to repeat these crimes in other countries as well. This type of notice is issued to many serial sex offenders.
- Interpol-United Nations Security Council Special Notice
This type of notice is issued for groups and individuals who are the targets of UN Security Council Sanctions Committees.
- Orange Notice
This type of Notice is issued to set alert about a person, an object, parcel bombs, disguised weapons and other dangerous and explosive materials; representing a serious and imminent threat to public safety.
OBC SUB CATEGORIZATION PANEL
The Union Cabinet on Wednesday approved a six-month extension in the tenure of the commission to examine sub-categorisation of Other Backward Classes (OBC), which was appointed in 2017 with an initial time frame of 12 weeks.
Union Information and Broadcasting Minister Prakash Javadekar said the Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, approved a proposal to extend the commission’s term till July 31.
The commission is headed by the G. Rohini, former Chief Justice of the Delhi High Court.
“The commission has come to the view that it would require some more time to submit its report since the repetitions, ambiguities, inconsistencies and errors of spelling or transcription, etc., appearing in the existing Central list of OBCs need to be cleared. Hence the commission has sought extension of its term by six months, that is up to July 31, 2020 and also addition in its existing terms of reference,” a government statement said.
NATIONAL GREEN TRIBUNAL
The National Green Tribunal (NGT) on Wednesday sought a report from the Delhi Development Authority (DDA) regarding constitution of a Work Front Management Authority, under the aegis of the urban planning body, to curb pollution on the Yamuna floodplains.
A Bench headed by NGT chairperson Adarsh Kumar Goel sought a response from the DDA on a suggestion by the Yamuna Monitoring Committee (YMC) for setting up an authority to curb pollution of the floodplains.
National Green Tribunal was formed under the National Green Tribunal Act of 2010. Act was enacted under the India’s constitutional provision of Article 21 which assures the citizens of India the right to healthy environment.
Tribunal has been created for effective and expeditious disposal of the cases relating to environmental protection and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith and incidental thereto.
Tribunal is mandated to make endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals filing within 6 months of the filing of the same.
Chairman of the tribunal must be a serving or retired Chief Justice of a High Court or judge of the Supreme Court of India.
The tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid under the Code of Civil Procedure 1908 but shall be guided by the principles of natural justice.
New Delhi is the principle place of sitting of the tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkatta and Chennai are other four places of sitting of the tribunal.
Present NGT Chairperson is Justice (Retired) Adarsh Kumar Goel.
In the end, a “young woman” named Vyom Mitra will ride to space in the first test flight of the human space mission, Gaganyaan.
The ISRO unveiled its first ‘woman’ astronaut to an international gathering here on Wednesday. Seated at a desk in a uniform with a custom-made ISRO identity badge, Vyom Mitra created a sensation as she introduced herself to the ISRO Chairman K. Sivan and Principal Scientific Adviser K. VijayRaghavan at the symposium on human space flight.
Dr. Sivan said the humanoid will simulate the human functions required for space before real astronauts take off before August 2022. Two trial flights without crew will take place with a humanoid — the first around December 2020 and the second around July 2021.
The ISRO will send the human-resembling model in a space capsule by 2020-end or early 2021 to study how she — and later real astronauts — respond to living outside earth in controlled zero-gravity conditions.
She can detect environmental changes within the cabin and change the air condition, Dr. Dayala Dev said.
FIRST EDITORIAL: ROLE OF SPEAKER
WHY IN NEWS?
Supreme Court in its latest decision has asked to reduce the role of Speaker in adjudicating on anti defection law.
Supreme Court said that Parliament should replace the Speaker with a “permanent tribunal” or external mechanism to render quick and impartial decisions on questions of defection.
Editorial highlights that Supreme Court has unnecesarily referred the matter to the Constitution bench that there should be time limit for deciding on questions relating to defections.
The question had arisen because several presiding officers have allowed defectors to bolster the strength of ruling parties and even be sworn in Ministers by merely refraining from adjudicating on complaints against them.
Some States have seen en masse defections soon after elections. Secure in the belief that no court would question the delay in disposal of disqualification matters.
Speakers have been wilfully failing to act as per law, thereby helping the ruling party, which invariably is the one that helped them get to the Chair.
JUDICIAL REVIEW ALLOWED
It made it clear that the court’s jurisdiction would not come into play unless the Speaker passes an order, leaving no room for intervention prior to adjudication.
As “failure to exercise jurisdiction” is a recognised stage at which the court can now intervene, the court has thus opened a window for judicial intervention in cases in which Speakers refuse to act. This augurs well for the enforcement of the law against defection in letter and spirit.
LEAD ARTICLE: HYBRID SEED MODEL FOR COTTON
Author highlights that Genetically Modified (GM) pest resistant Bt cotton hybrids have captured the Indian market since their introduction in 2002. These now cover over 95% of the area under cotton, with the seeds produced entirely by the private sector.
HYBRID SEED IN INDIA
India is the only country that grows cotton as hybrids and the first to develop hybrid cotton back in 1970. Hybrids are made by crossing two parent strains having different genetic characters. These plants have more biomass than both parents, and capacity for greater yields.
They also require more inputs, including fertilizer and water. Though hybrid cotton seed production is expensive, requiring manual crossing, India’s low cost of manual labour make it economically viable. All other cotton-producing countries grow cotton not as hybrids but varieties for which seeds are produced by self-fertilization.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HYBRIDS AND VARIETIES
A key difference between hybrids and varieties is that varieties can be propagated over successive generations by collecting seeds from one planting and using them for the next planting; hybrid seeds have to be remade for each planting by crossing the parents.
So for hybrids, farmers must purchase seed for each planting, but not for varieties. Using hybrids gives pricing control to the seed company and also ensures a continuous market.
Increased yield from a hybrid is supposed to justify the high cost of hybrid seeds. However, for cotton, a different strategy using high density planting (HDP) of compact varieties has been found to outperform hybrids at the field level.
WHAT STRATEGIES SHOULD BE ADOPTED?
Cotton is a dryland crop and 65% of area under cotton in India is rain-fed. Farmers with insufficient access to groundwater in these areas are entirely dependent on rain. Here, the shorter duration variety has a major advantage as it reduces dependence on irrigation and risk, particularly late in the growing season when soil moisture drops following the monsoon’s withdrawal.
COMPACT VARIETIES: The advantages of compact varieties over hybrids are considerable: more than twice the productivity, half the fertilizer (200 kg/ha for hybrids versus 100 kg/ha for varieties), reduced water requirement, and less vulnerability to damage from insect pests due to a shorter field duration. Yet, India has persisted with long-duration hybrids, many years after benefits of compact varieties became clear from global experience.
WHY COMPACT VARIETIES HAVE NOT BEEN ADOPTED?
The current annual value of cotton seed used for planting is about ₹2,500 crore, and that of lint cotton produced is ₹68,000 crore. Therefore, it appears that the interests of the cotton seed industry have constrained the very much larger value of cotton production and the overall cotton industry.
It is important to recognise that adoption of any new technology such as Bt is a choice and not an imperative. For example, some of the major cotton-producing countries such as Brazil (until 2012) and Turkey (up to the present) have achieved high productivity without the use of GM cotton by using alternative pest-management approaches. The purpose of risk assessment in GMO regulation is to enable exercising of this choice by careful and comprehensive evaluation of costs and benefits. In the case of Bt cotton hybrids, the benefits were limited and costs may well have been too high, particularly for resource-poor farmers.
SECOND ARTICLE: CLIMATE CHANGE
Author highlights that the annual Conference of the Parties (COP25), held in Madrid in December 2019, was a failure and that the multilateral process to address the climate crisis is broken.
At several discussions on finance, ambition, transparency of support and pre-2020 action, wealthy countries were recalcitrant. Although responsible for using the bulk of the carbon space in the atmosphere, they now disavow their obligations, with some even denying anthropogenic climate change.
The next COP will be held at Glasgow, U.K. (in late 2020) and there may be little change in the outcomes, as the global political order may not alter much. The fact that we live in an unequal and unjust world is not going to change either.
WHAT COULD BE INDIA’S COURSE OF ACTION IN SUCH A SITUATION?
The stalemate at the global level offers India the opportunity to focus earnestly on developing its climate change action at State and sub-State levels, where the environment and climate continue to be relegated to peripheral status.
Numerous studies have shown the high economic and ecological costs and loss of lives due to extreme events. We do not need more data to stimulate action. As is also well recognised, India is extremely vulnerable to the effects of warming.
Attention to climate change offers co-benefits to India for development. For instance: improving energy efficiency in industry reduces costs and local pollution; improving public transport reduces congestion, pollution and improves access; and using natural farming methods reduces fossil fuel-based fertilizers, improves soil health and biodiversity. These show that there are synergies in the steps to be taken for good development and climate change.
As the next round of the SAPCCs are being drawn up, under recommendations from the Centre, the focus ought to be on integrating the response to climate change with the development plan in different departments. –
INTEGRATED ACTION IS REQUIRED
Line departments for government schemes and programmes in key development sectors, such as agriculture, transport and water, should be identified for carefully integrating actions that respond to climate change. This integration should also take place at district and sub-district levels. But only a demonstration of its success in some departments would show how this can be done. But first and foremost, States need to get the signal that climate is an urgent issue.
WHAT MORE COULD BE DONE?
If States are to develop SAPCCs that would ultimately add up to India’s NDCs, then the country needs reliable greenhouse gas inventories.
Individual research groups and the civil society initiative, GHG Platform India, have been producing such inventories and would be useful in synchronising and co-ordinating State and Central mitigation programmes.
States must also develop their programmes with longer timelines, with mid-course correction based on lessons and successes that can be integrated into the next stage of the plan. If the second round of SAPCCs were treated as an entry point to long-term development strategy, the States and the country would be better prepared for climate change. Ultimately, climate should be part and parcel of all thinking on development.
SECOND EDITORIAL: ASER REPORT
FAILURE OF PRE-SCHOOL SYSTEM
The Annual Status of Education Report 2019 data on early childhood education in rural areas makes the case that the pre-school system fails to give children a strong foundation, especially in government-run facilities.
WHAT ARE OTHER FINDINGS OF THE REPORT?
The percentage of girls in government schools is higher than in private institutions, the cognitive skills of children attending official anganwadi playschools do not match those attending private schools, and there is a significant percentage of underage children in the first standard of formal school, in violation of the stipulated age of six.
ASER data sampled from 26 Indian districts seem to indicate is an apparent imbalance in State policies, which is disadvantaging the less affluent as anganwadis and government schools are poorly resourced.
Official policies are also not strict about the age of entry, resulting in four and five year olds accounting for a quarter of government school enrolment, and over 15% in private schools.
It is unsurprising that in the absence of policies with strong commitment, according to the ASER data, two-thirds of those in the second standard cannot read a text at age seven that they were meant to read a year earlier.
Nationally, the problem is of a weak educational foundation with little scope for creative learning in the three-to-six year age group, and a governmental system disinterested in giving children motivated, well-trained teachers. There is no dearth of literature on what works for creative teaching and learning, including from programmes such as the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. Neither is there a lack of financial resources. What remains is for governments to show commitment to education.
FIRST ARTICLE: MYANMAR’S GROWING DEPENDENCE ON CHINA
WHY CHINA MYANMAR RELATIONS ARE IN NEWS?
Chinese President Xi Jinping’s state visit to Myanmar last week. 33 agreements signed, although in a short sojourn of a day and a half.
The last visit by a Chinese President took place in 2001.
Mr. Xi’s conscious choice to spend ample time on discussions with Myanmar’s top three leaders — President Win Myint, State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi and Commander-in-Chief Min Aung Hlaing — conveyed a significant message.
The joint statement, issued on January 18, claims that “a new chapter” has been opened “in the ever-lasting friendship” between the two countries, stemming from the broad understanding to promote “comprehensive strategic cooperation.” It refers to building the “Myanmar-China Community with a Shared Future.” Exchanges of “experience in governance” will be deepened and strategic communication will be enhanced. Besides, the two governments plan to make good use of the 2+2 high-level consultations, comprising the two Foreign Ministers and Defence Ministers.
The Chinese also made it clear that the Myanmar government, currently under intense international pressure due to its rigid position on the Rohingya issue, will continue to receive China’s full support. Beijing has positioned itself as the great defender of Myanmar’s legitimate rights, interests and national dignity at a time when the International Court of Justice (ICJ) is about to pronounce on the charges of genocide against the Myanmar military.
Impact on India
The situation around India has taken an adverse turn in the recent months. Against the general backdrop of consolidation of China-Pakistan relations, Mr. Xi’s visit to Nepal, his strategic gains in Myanmar, and forthcoming visit of the Sri Lankan President to Beijing form part of a pattern. It is one of the setbacks and challenges to India’s diplomacy in South Asia. It calls for deep reflection and comprehensive consultations with the finest minds in the country.
SECOND ARTICLE: INDIA’S UNTAPPED SOFT POWER
In this article author has highlighted the importance of film industry in Indian Economy.
A PWC report states that the media and entertainment industry outperformed expectations in FY19 and was amongst the fastest-growing sectors with a growth rate of 13%. India produces the maximum number of films in a year worldwide.
HIGHLY TAXED:Despite this, it is still far from being recognised as an important sector for the government. Initially, under the Goods and Services Tax regime, the film industry was slotted under the ‘luxury’ category. A tax rate of 28% was imposed on it. After an outcry, this was revised to 18%.
GST poses a challenge: if a particular movie appeals to a State government, that government can grant ‘tax free’ status to that film. With the GST in place, States can waive off the SGST (9%) alone. Therefore, a movie deemed ‘tax free’ is still be liable to pay CGST.
HIGH TAXES UNDERMINING INDIA’S SOFT POWER
Deeming the entertainment sector as a ‘luxury’ sector undermines its soft power. The president of the Producers Guild of India, Siddharth Roy Kapur, observed how the spread of American content helped create desirability for the American dream and way of life and how this further cemented the hegemony of the U.S. The soft power of the Indian industry is seen in the many public service messages and political campaigns that use film actors to propagate their messages.
LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE
India lacks the infrastructure to take films to interior areas. For a population of 1.37 billion people, India has less than 10,000 screens, of which 6,700 are single screens. The procedure to convert a single screen theatre to a multiplex is tedious and costly. New permission and licenses are required, and existing licenses often hold little value. In stark contrast, China has about 60,000 screens for a population of 1.4 billion.
Ironically, films set in the interiors of India, such as Secret Superstar and Dangal, have more footfalls in China than they do here. A large portion of the Indian population does not have access to the content that is derived from them.
Not enough incentives
Much like the U.S., India allows its States to decide incentives for film shoots that take place within their territories.
During a film shoot, the location gains tourist attention. Films also generate seasonal employment by hiring local staff and parts of the crew. It is a lucrative venture to have a film shoot at site. It is because of this that countries like the U.K. and Malta provide incentives such as easy clearances and rebates upto 30-40% of the total cost of the projects filmed there. In India the incentives are much lower, and in most States the cash rebates are capped at nominal amounts which are not lucrative for big-budget productions.
The film industry deserves more support for its growth and protection. With high export potential, the content created helps disseminate the uniqueness of India’s culture.
Tapping into the potential of this multiseasonal industry opens a plethora of opportunities: from better international awareness about the country to creating employment opportunities within.
Deaths from China’s new flu-like virus rose to 17 on Wednesday, heightening global fears of contagion from an infection suspected to have come from animals.
The previously unknown and contagious coronavirus strain emerged from the central city of Wuhan, with cases now detected as far away as the U.S. Officials believe the origin to be a market where wildlife is traded illegally.
The latest death toll in Hubei province, of which Wuhan is the capital, had risen to 17 by 1200 GMT on Wednesday, state television quoted the provincial government as saying.
The World Health Organization (WHO) began an emergency meeting to rule if the outbreak was a global health emergency.
After official appeals to stay calm, many Chinese were cancelling trips, buying face masks, avoiding public places such as cinemas and shopping centres, and even turning to an online plague simulation game or watching disaster movie The Flu as a way to cope. “The best way to conquer fear is to confront fear,” said one commentator on Weibo.
The virus has spread from Wuhan around China to population centres, including Beijing, Shanghai, Macau and Hong Kong.
ABOUT CORONA VIRUS
- Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).
- Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people.
Common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death.
Human coronaviruses most commonly spread from an infected person to others through:
- the air by coughing and sneezing.
- close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands.
- touching an object or surface with the virus on it, then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes before washing your hands.
- rarely, fecal contamination
NEWS: Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan on Wednesday urged the international powers, including the UN and the U.S., to help de-escalate tensions with India, saying they “must act” to prevent the two nuclear-armed countries from reaching a point of no return.
Mr. Khan also demanded that UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) be allowed along the Line of Control, the paper said.
India maintains that the UNMOGIP, established in January 1949, has outlived its utility and is irrelevant after the Shimla Agreement and the consequent establishment of the LoC.
UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) UNMOGIP has been established by UN Security Council (UNSC) Resolution and started its operations in 1949. It has been tasked with monitoring the ceasefire line or tasked with monitoring the ceasefire line between nuclear-armed India and Pakistan in Jammu and Kashmir. UNMOGIP has 44 military observers, 25 international civilian personnel from 10 countries and 47 local civilian staff. The group The group is financed by the United Nations regular budget.
UNMOGIP’s military observers conduct field tasks (field trip, area recce, field visit and observation post) along LoC.
As part of 1949 Karachi Agreement, it also conducts investigations into alleged ceasefire violation complaints.
India has maintained that UNMOGIP has outlived its utility and is irrelevant after the Shimla (Accord) Agreement and consequent establishment of Line of control.
In 2014, India had asked UNMOGIP to wind up its work in Kashmir and in 2017, Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) had reiterated that UNMOGIP does not have mandate to monitor situation in Kashmir.
MEIN KAMPF: Book written by Hitler