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Q.1 All India Khilafat Committee was headed by

A. Mahatma Gandhi

B. Maulana Azad

C. Muhammad Ali

D. Shaukat Ali


Q.2 Who among the following is not associated with Kakori Conspiracy case?

A. Ashfaqullah

B. Rampasad Bismil

C. Rajendra Lahiri

D. Bhagat Singh


Q.3 Consider the following statements about cotton cultivation

  1. Cotton requires light rainfall.
  2. Cotton requires 210 frost free days and bright sunshine

Which of the above statements is correct?

A. 1 only

B. 2 only

C. Both 1 and 2

D. None of the above



NEWS: Maharashtra Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray on Monday assured delegations from the Muslim community that the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) and the National Register of Citizens will not be implemented in the State.

Addressing a public meeting at Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Y.S. Jagan Mohan Reddy also categorically stated that the State government would not support the proposed implementation of the National Register of Citizens .

With this, Andhra Pradesh joins 10 other States in opposing or refusing to implement the National Register of Citizens .


What is National Register of Citizens (NRC)?

  • National Register of Citizens, 1951 is a register prepared after the conduct of the Census of 1951 in respect of each village, showing the houses or holdings in a serial order and indicating against each house or holding the number and names of persons staying therein.
  • The NRC was published only once in 1951.


NRC is a list to segregate Indian citizens living in Assam from those who had illegally entered the State from Bangladesh after 24th March 1971.

The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is the list of Indian citizens of Assam. It was prepared in 1951, following the census of 1951.

For a person’s name to be included in the updated NRC list of 2018, he/ she will have to furnish:

  1. Existence of name in the legacy data: The legacy data is the collective list of the NRC data of 1951 and the electoral rolls up to midnight of 24 March 1971.
  2. Proving linkage with the person whose name appears in the legacy data.

Why was it updated?

The process of NRC update was taken up in Assam as per a Supreme Court order in 2013. In order to wean out cases of illegal migration from Bangladesh and other adjoining areas, NRC updation was carried out under The Citizenship Act, 1955, and according to rules framed in the Assam Accord.

More than 19 lakh of the 3.3 crore applicants have been left out of Assam’s final National Register of Citizens (NRC), which was published on Saturday, concluding a five-year, Supreme Court-monitored exercise that cost ₹1,220 crore.


  1. Two million stateless people.
  2. Mostly poor and unlettered are being targeted.
  3. Opacity around the functioning of the Foreigners Tribunals.
  4. Few members included and other excluded.
  5. Expensive and Time Consuming



NEWS: The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has disposed of a review plea filed by the Uttar Pradesh government seeking relief from an earlier order in which the State government was directed to deposit an environmental compensation of ₹1 crore for failing to curb pollution in the Ganga.

Dismissing the review plea, a Bench headed by NGT chief Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel said, “In support of this application, it is stated that certain facts could not be placed before the Tribunal at the time when the order was passed. It is contended that the action was permissible in view of the prevailing circumstances [under relevant sections].”


National Green Tribunal was formed under the National Green Tribunal Act of 2010. Act was enacted under the India’s constitutional provision of Article 21 which assures the citizens of India the right to healthy environment.

Tribunal has been created for effective and expeditious disposal of the cases relating to environmental protection and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith and incidental thereto.

Tribunal is mandated to make endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals filing within 6 months of the filing of the same.

Chairman of the tribunal must be a serving or retired Chief Justice of a High Court or judge of the Supreme Court of India. 

The tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid under the Code of Civil Procedure 1908 but shall be guided by the principles of natural justice. 

New Delhi is the principle place of sitting of the tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkatta and Chennai are other four places of sitting of the tribunal.

Present NGT Chairperson is Justice (Retired) Adarsh Kumar Goel.



NEWS:The air quality of Delhi continued to be in the ‘very poor’ category on Monday and is predicted to deteriorate to ‘severe’ in parts of Delhi on Tuesday, said government-run monitoring agency SAFAR.

“The decrease in surface wind speed, temperature, and increase in moisture have been forecast and these are likely to lead to very dense fog during the next two days. However, an increase in surface wind speed is forecast from December 25. It is likely to improve ventilation and AQI. Further improvement is expected by December 26,” said SAFAR.


Air Quality Index is a number used by the government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted air currently is and how polluted it is expected to become.

There are six AQI categories, namely Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe.

AQI considers eight pollutants

  1. PM10,
  2. 5,
  3. NO2,
  4. SO2,
  5. CO,
  6. O3,
  7. NH3, and
  8. Pb)

Air Quality Index was launched  in 2014 by Central Pollution Control Board under Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change.



NEWS: The Delhi Cabinet on Monday passed an Electric Vehicle Policy to help reduce air pollution, said Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal.

Under the policy, the government aims to make electric vehicles 25% of all new vehicles registered in the city by 2024. Also, the government will develop public charging infrastructure, instal charging stations every three km and give subsidies to people buying electric vehicles, among others.

To tackle the issue of air pollution, the Cabinet has decided to pass the Electric Vehicle Policy, which is an ambitious policy in its scope. Vehicles amount to 40% of PM2.5 air pollution levels and 80% of carbon monoxide in the air,” Mr. Kejriwal said.


  1. 5 lakh tax rebate on purchase of electric vehicle,
  2. GST rates on electric vehicles reduced from 12% to 5%.
  3. GST rate on electric battery chargers have been reduced from 18% to 5%.
  4. GST exemption for hiring of buses by local authorities.
  5. For three-wheelers and two-wheelers, NITI Aayog have suggested [a shift by] 2023 and 2025 [respectively] for new vehicles to be 100% electric.
  6. customs duty exemption on lithium–ion cells, which will help lower the cost of lithium-ion batteries in India as they are not produced locally.
  7. The National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020 for the faster adoption of electric vehicles and their manufacturing in the country. This plan has been designed to enhance national fuel security, to provide affordable and environmentally friendly transportation and to enable the Indian automotive industry to achieve global manufacturing leadership.
  8. Under the NEMMP 2020, there is an ambitious target to achieve 6-7 million sales of hybrid and electric vehicles by the year 2020.
  9. India announced the second phase of FAME with an outlay of 10,000 crore for a period of three years. FAME 2 will encourage faster adoption of an electric vehicle. The scheme will support 10 lakh two wheelers, 5 lakh tree wheelers, 55,000 four wheelers and 7000 buses.


  1. Reduces pollution
  2. Reduces dependence on oil import
  3. Cheaper to run
  4. Cheaper maintenance of electric vehicles



NEWS: The Crime Branch on Monday indicted anti-moral policing Kiss of Love activist Rahul Pashupalan and his partner and model, Reshmi Nair, for “pairing off” under-age girls with wealthy clients looking for paid sex. In a chargesheet filed in a court here, the agency has booked the duo for violating the provisions of the POCSO Act.

The agency had arrested them in 2015 after a month-long undercover operation, code-named ‘Operation Big Daddy’.


The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO Act) 2012 was formulated in order to effectively address sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children.

Act defines a child as any person below eighteen years of age, and regards the best interests and welfare of the child as matter of paramount importance at every stage, to ensure the healthy physical, emotional, intellectual and social development of the child. The act is gender neutral.

The Act is a comprehensive law to provide for the protection of children from the offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography, while safeguarding the interests of the child at every stage of the judicial process by incorporating child-friendly mechanisms for reporting, recording of evidence, investigation and speedy trial of offences through appointment of Special Public Prosecutors and designated Special Courts.

In 2019 POCSO Amendment Bill increased the minimum punishment from seven years to ten years.  It further adds that if a person commits penetrative sexual assault on a child below the age of 16 years, he will be punishable with imprisonment between 20 years to life, with a fine.



NEWS: A six-member team attached to Pathanamthitta Birders has spotted the Bar-headed goose (Anser Indicus) in the wetlands of Karingali Puncha, near Pandalam, reportedly the first sighting in the district.

The Puncha is a major birding spot in the district which reported the highest bird count in the Asian Waterfowl Census of 2015.

They are one of the birds which can fly even at very high altitude. They come to India and return to their homes by crossing the Himalayan ranges.

The capacity of bar-headed geese to transport and consume oxygen at high rates in hypoxia distinguishes this species from similar lowland waterfowl.



NEWS: The tribal delicacy has lost its identity and authenticity in Andhra Pradesh.

The tribal ambrosia originated in the Maredumilli forests in which the Konda Reddi tribe practices the traditional method of ‘roasting chicken in a bamboo pipe’.

Oil, spices, and salt should not be added to prepare the Bamboo Chicken. Unless the bamboo pipe is not fresh, salt should not be added.

The chicken requires to be roasted in the bamboo pipe at least for one and a half hours to attain the actual taste only by adding turmeric, red chilli powder, green chilli, ginger, and garlic. This typical process is hardly seen anywhere now in the State.



NEWS: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Telangana, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh account for a higher prevalence of mental disorders that manifest primarily during adulthood in depression and anxiety, according to the first comprehensive estimates of disease burden attributable to mental health from 1990 prepared by the India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative and published in the Lancet Psychiatry.

The study finds that roughly one in seven Indians, or 197 million persons, suffered from mental disorders of varying severity in 2017.


Depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, idiopathic developmental intellectual disability, conduct disorders, and autism.

Importantly, the contribution of mental disorders to the disability adjusted life year (DALY) — the sum of total years of life lost and years lived with disability — has doubled between 1990 and 2017 increasing from 2.5% to 4.7%.

Mental disorders were the second leading cause of disease burden in terms of years lived with disability (YLDs) and the sixth leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in the world in 2017.

In total, 45.7 million people had depressive disorders, as one in three years lost due to a mental disorder was due to depression. This was followed by anxiety — a total of 44.9 million people suffered from it and it accounted for the loss of 1 in 5 years.

In its State-wise analysis, the study divides different States into three categories on the basis of their socio-demographic index (SDI), i.e low, medium and high SDI States. The SDI is a composite measure of per-capita income, mean education, and fertility rate in women younger than 25 years and is calculated on a scale of one.

Prevalence of depressive disorders was highest in Tamil Nadu (loss of 836 years per 1 lakh population ), Kerala (loss of 641 years), Goa (loss of 626 years) and Telangana (loss of 756 years) in the high SDI State group and Andhra Pradesh (loss of 793 years) in the middle SDI State group.



NEWS: The National Investigation Agency (NIA) conducted searches in Delhi and Nagaland at the residence of Alemla Jamir, a member of the steering committee of the NSCN(IM) that is involved in peace talks with the Centre.

The NIA has accused Ms. Alemla Jamir of transporting terror funds from Delhi to Nagaland on the instructions of Icrak Muivah, wife of T. Muivah of the Isak-Muivah faction of the NSCN(IM).

Nagaland Governor R.N Ravi is engaged in final round of negotiations with Mr. Muivah and other Naga groups for the Naga peace deal.


It is the central agency established by the Government of India to combat terror in India.

Agency came into existence with the enactment of the NIA Act 2008.

NIA was created after the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks.Y C Modi is chairman of NIA.

National Investigation Agency (NIA) can go to any state without taking permission from state police concerned for checking anti-terror activities.

NIA works under Ministry of Home Affairs.




The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)’s faced defeat in Jharkhand at the hands of the Congress-Jharkhand Mukti Morcha-Rashtriya Janata Dal alliance.

Jharkhand, like Maharashtra, is also an example of the increasing distrust between the BJP and allies. The BJP’s ally, All Jharkhand Students Union, parted ways with it following the Lok Sabha election, contributing to its defeat.

Nationalist bluster has limited appeal in State elections, and questions of livelihood and ethnic autonomy significantly influence voter choices, it appears.

In Jharkhand, outgoing Chief Minister Raghubar Das’s unpopularity made the BJP’s downfall quite predictable. Mr. Modi tried to make up for the governance deficiency by making communal appeals during the campaign. He insinuated that only Muslims were behind the violence in protests against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act. The BJP bit the dust nevertheless.

Editorial highlights that  it may not be accurate to interpret the outcome as the sign of any countrywide mood against the BJP. There is no proof yet that the Opposition has gained enough momentum to challenge the BJP’s defining ability to build up mega campaigns on sentimental issues and eclipse material questions and diversity in aspirations.



NEWS: With the passage of Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s Brexit deal in British Parliament, it is now almost certain that the country would exit the European Union (EU) on or before the current deadline — January 31.

Mr. Johnson first reached a new agreement with the EU and then called fresh elections. With his party’s resounding win in the parliamentary election and a surge in the number of Brexiteers among Conservative lawmakers, the passage of the Bill in the House of Commons was a mere formality. The deal got the support of 358 lawmakers against 234.


The agreement deals with issues such as citizens’ rights, the settlement amount the U.K. has agreed to pay the EU and an arrangement to avoid physical barriers between the Northern Ireland, which is part of the U.K., and the Republic of Ireland, an EU member.


A formal exit, however, doesn’t mean that the tedious Brexit process is over.

Mr. Johnson’s biggest challenge is to reach another agreement with the EU on the country’s future relationship with the bloc. He has ruled out extending talks beyond the December 31, 2020 deadline, which means a no-deal exit can still not be ruled out.

. Furthermore, Mr. Johnson faces legislative and political challenges ahead even if the current deal goes through the EU hurdle. His government has to pass a series of new legislation replacing the existing EU laws.

He should also be mindful of the impact his deal may have on the delicate peace in Northern Ireland.


The uncertainty on how Brexit will happen still remains. Mr. Johnson may like to wrap up Brexit at a breakneck speed, but he should be mindful of these speed-breakers. If not, the economic and political costs of Brexit could be huge.




Concerns are increasingly being voiced by different segments of people regarding violations of the Constitution by those in authority.

Steps need to be taken expeditiously to prevent any further slide.


Hasty manner in which Article 370 was diluted. While the Indian Constitution provides for a federal system with a unitary bias, the Central and State Governments both derive their authority from the Constitution. This implies that States are not exactly subordinate to the Centre.

Splitting Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) into two Union Territories, without due consultation with different segments and shades of opinion there, including its political leadership, ran contrary to this essential principle. It violated the spirit, if not the letter, of the Constitution.

Undermining of SECULARISM: While secularism is becoming an ugly word today in many parts of the globe, we in India were free of any such bias. Lately, it would seem, that some of these biases are beginning to emerge in many circles in India as well, undermining our long held secular precepts. In its seminal judgment in the Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala case (1973), the Supreme Court held that secularism is part of the basic structure of the Constitution and cannot be trifled with in the name of security or other considerations.

MAHARASHTRA DRAMA: A pre-election alliance of the BJP-Shiv Sena had secured a majority, but the inability of the two allies to resolve issues relating to sharing of power led to a breakdown. President’s rule had to be invoked. Later, after a compromise was reached between the Shiv Sena, the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) and the Congress to form a government, the President’s rule was revoked in a midnight charade using the Prime Minister’s ‘special powers’, and a BJP-led government was sworn in. The State also witnessed unseemly incidents such as sequestering of MLAs who were taken to safe havens to avoid poaching in the event of a trial of strength in the Assembly.

CITIZENSHIP AMENDMENT ACT: On the face of it, the CAA only makes it easier for refugees from countries such as Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan to gain Indian citizenship. The fine point, however, is that it excludes certain categories, such as Muslims. This denies people belonging to one particular religion recourse to the new law.

Citizenship (Amendment) Bill passed through both the Houses without any detailed debate or discussion thereafter is, hence, unfortunate, giving an impression that a majority in Parliament is adequate to push through Acts which may or may not be in tune with the Constitution.

CONCLUSION: At this juncture, it may be worthwhile to quote Winston Churchill ‘the price of greatness is responsibility’. Is India acting responsibly?




Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Y.S. Jagan Mohan Reddy has hinted at the establishment of three capitals, citing the South Africa example.

Amaravati, Visakhapatnam and Kurnool will the legislative, executive and judicial capitals respectively.


Can a capital city be divided into three or more pieces and spread across the State based on regional and other considerations?

Can the ruling party of the day play with the idea of a State capital, an enduring symbol of identity for people, and keep shuffling it on political grounds?

Should a huge mandate mean a licence to tinker with anything, with scant regard to continuity in governance?

And what if a rival political party comes to power later and reverses the three capitals proposal midway?

No one opposes decentralisation of administration and development. But in gravitating towards a three-capital idea, Mr. Reddy appears to be using it to settle political scores with his predecessor.

There could be no other reason as Mr. Reddy has floated his idea a full five-and-half years after the tumultuous bifurcation left a truncated Andhra Pradesh without a capital. As Leader of the Opposition in the previous State Assembly, Mr. Reddy did not oppose the location or structure of the capital, leave alone demanding three capitals.

Yes, it is true that the Sivaramakrishnan Committee, constituted by the Central government to suggest choices for the capital, did not favour one ‘super-capital’ and pitched for decentralised development. But, the panel also never said that there should be a string of capitals across the State as is being interpreted now.

G N RAO Committee: This committee suggested that Andhra Pradesh should have a High Court in Kurnool, with a bench each in Visakhapatnam and Amaravati; and an Assembly in Amaravati, which also conducts a few sessions in Visakhapatnam. The proposal promises to be a logistical nightmare with officials frequently having to hop from one city to another.


The point here is, leaving aside Amaravati’s scale and size, a centrally located capital has already come into existence with the completion of Secretariat, Assembly and High Court buildings.

Should not a government that appears to be sensitive to extravagant public expenditure capitalise on this infrastructure, instead of creating something new in various cities at an enormous cost?

At a time when political rivals of conflicting ideologies have come together to form a government in a neighbouring State based on a Common Minimum Programme, is it too much to expect something like CMP on a capital city?




Vaikom is a metaphor for social justice — when scores of satyagrahis from the Tamil country joined hands with their brethren in a heroic struggle.

Vaikom was then in the princely state of Travancore. The four streets surrounding the temple of the presiding deity, Lord Mahadeva, were out of bounds for Ezhavas and other castes counted as ritually lower. In 1924, a satyagraha was launched against this injustice by T.K. Madhavan. It lasted for 18 months.

In the initial stages, K.P. Kesava Menon and George Joseph led the struggle. Other prominent figures included Kurur Neelakanthan Namboodiri and Mannathu Padmanabhan. Towards the end, M.K. Gandhi reached Vaikom and gave it the finishing flourish.

The satyagraha began on March 30 with the active support of the Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee. But within a week all its leaders were behind bars. While George Joseph sought directions from Gandhi and C. Rajagopalachari, he wrote to Periyar pleading with him to lead the satyagraha. Periyar was in the midst of political work when Joseph’s missive reached him.

As he was then the president of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee, Periyar handed over temporary charge to Rajaji before reaching Vaikom on April 13, 1924. From that date to the day of the victory celebrations, November 29, 1925, he was in the thick of the struggle giving it leadership at a critical juncture.


Periyar presided over the satyagraha in the face of untold violence and indignity inflicted by the orthodox and the repression of the police.

To mobilise support, he visited villages in and around Vaikom and delivered public speeches in several towns. His campaign tour stretched to Thiruvananthapuram and even further to Nagercoil.

He used his wit and folk logic to punch holes in the argument of the orthodox.

Periyar was in the forefront of every aspect of the struggle. As president of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee he arranged for a contribution of ₹1,000. He was part of every consultative meeting, peace committee, campaign party, etc., including the eight-member deputation constituted to meet the Diwan. Every major personality who came to Vaikom met with Periyar. This included Swami Shraddhananda of the Arya Samaj. Rajaji met Periyar in prison before proceeding to Vaikom. Gandhi too consulted him during his visit.


The satyagraha ended in partial victory in November 1925: three out of four streets were thrown open. Nevertheless, it was an important step. Final victory came 11 years later with the Travancore Temple Entry Proclamation of 1936. By that time not only had Periyar become a bitter critic of Gandhi, but even his views on satyagraha changed.




The Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) of 2019 has had huge consequences on both the domestic and foreign policy front. In India, widespread protests that began in the Northeast are now raging across the country.

On the international front, soon after the protests broke out, two Bangladesh ministers cancelled their visit to India, the Japanese Prime Minister postponed his visit to the country and the annual India-Japan summit was cancelled.

This amendment has put entire North East in turmoil.


Apart from being the unique region that links India with ASEAN nations, the Northeast is also the springboard for India’s engagement with Southeast Asia. This is precisely why New Delhi roped in Tokyo to fulfill its ambitious plan of expanding its global footprints via development in the Northeast.


Japan has contributed official development assistance loans for the North East Road Network Connectivity Improvement Project. Private Japanese organisations are also financing a host of developmental projects in the region. It is but natural that the CAA protests and Internet shutdowns in the region would have come as a huge shock to Japan and its investment plans in the region which hinge on stability and a business-friendly environment conducive.


The U.S., the U.K., Canada and others have issued travel advisories to those visiting the Northeast. Why did the government not utilise diplomatic channels to put forth its views before the stakeholders in the international community? Had it done this, it could have avoided the embarrassment it is facing today. It is high time that decision-makers of the BJP learnt the basic difference between raw muscularity and successful diplomacy before taking such measures.


At the global level, India has always been respected for its diversity and inclusive character. It is because of parochial decisions like the CAA that India will now join the rank of nations which are viewed with suspicion because of their political and economic climate. Instead of being on an expansion mode, thanks to the government India will now be on an explanatory mode.



NEWS: The Ministry of Home Affairs has been instructing the State governments since 2009 to set up detention centres to “restrict the movements of foreign nationals staying illegally so that they are physically available at all times for expeditious repatriation”, according to the government response in the Lok Sabha.

Such instructions were issued to all the States and Union Territories from time to time in 2009, 2012, 2014 and 2018.

Detailed manual on ‘model detention centres’ was circulated to all the States on January 9.

The 11-page manual was prepared in the aftermath of a petition filed by activist Harsh Mander on September 20, 2018, in the Supreme Court, highlighting the plight of families languishing in six detention centres in Assam where members of the families, who were declared foreigners, were put in camps separated from each other. It was argued that the State did not make any distinction between “jails and detention centres” and thus between “detainees and ordinary inmates” and the camps were being governed as per the Assam jail manual.

The manual says the States require “no specific approval” from the Ministry to set up “detention centres/holding centres/camps”. It lays down that these centres should be set up outside the jail premises and their numbers and size should be decided by the States keeping in view the actual number of foreigners to be housed as well as the progress in deportation proceedings.


News: Russia hopeful of India’s free trade pact with EAEU.

Russia is looking forward to India concluding a new Free Trade Agreement with the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), its Ambassador Nikolay Kudashev said on Monday.

What is the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU)

The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) is an international economic union the comprises countries located in northern Eurasia. The founding member states, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia established the union by treaty and entered into force on January 1, 2015.

BREAKING DOWN Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU)
The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) was created in part in response to the economic and political influence of the European Union and other Western countries. As of May 2018 member states included Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia.

The EAEU ensures the free movement of goods, services, labor and capital between the states, and provides for common policies in macroeconomic sphere, transport, industry and agriculture, energy, foreign trade and investment, customs, technical regulation, competition and antitrust regulation. Unlike the treaty forming the Eurozone, the treaty forming the EAEU has not to date established a single currency.

On May 29, 2014, the EAEU was formally established when founding member states Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia signed the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union and this treaty was entered into force on January 1, 2015.



NEWS: Beijing warned on Monday that the U.S. was turning the cosmos into a “battlefield”, after Washington announced a new military arm called the Space Force.

Following concerns that China and Russia are challenging its position in space, U.S. President Donald Trump signed the 2020 National Defense Authorization Act on Friday — which created a new branch of the U.S. military.

Mr. Geng called for the international community to “adopt a prudent and responsible attitude to prevent outer space from becoming a new battlefield”.

The Space Force will be the sixth formal force of the U.S. military, after the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marines, and Coast Guard.


News: Airlines may fly into a $600mn  loss: CAPA

Aviation consultancy CAPA estimates a fullyear loss of$500600 million for Indian carriers primarily due to a sharp fall in airfares on some of the most profitable routes as the airlines mounted additional capacity in a bid to capture coveted airport slots owned by the now defunct Jet Airways.

The consultancy recommends that the government review the challenges before the sector following the demise of Jet Airways and subject airlines to an annual review where they may be required to prove that they have sufficient cash reserves to continue flying.

About Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation :- CAPA – Centre for Aviation, part of the Aviation Week Network, is one of the world’s most trusted sources of market intelligence for the aviation and travel industry.

Since its establishment in 1990, CAPA has developed a formidable global network of aviation researchers and analysts located across Europe, North America, Asia and Australia.



NEWS: With 66.79 lakh new dealers registered under the Goods and Service Tax contributing just 15% of the total revenue under the tax regime, the GST Network has decided to make Aadhaar authentication or physical verification mandatory for new dealers from January 1, 2020, to check malpractices.

The number of registrations under GST stood at 1.21 crore and of this, 55.04 lakh dealers had migrated from the pre-GST regime and 66.79 lakh were new registrations since the launch of GST. He said dealers who migrated to the GST contributed 85% of the total revenue.


  • Goods and Services Tax is a comprehensive indirect tax which is to be levied on the manufacturesaleand consumption of goods and services in India.
  • GST eliminates the cascading effectof taxes because it is taxed at every point of business and the input credit is available in the value chain.
  • At present we have 8 RATES UNDER THE GST: 0%, 5%, 12%, 18%, 28%, 0.25% for rough diamonds, 3% for Gold, 1% for affordable housing.
  • Francewas the first country to introduce GST system in 1954.
  • More than 140 countries have implemented the GST.



NEWS:The RBI has purchased ₹10,000-crore worth long-term government securities and sold ₹6,825 crore of short-term securities through open market operations (OMOs).

Last week, the RBI had announced simultaneous purchase and sale of government securities under OMOs for ₹10,000 crore each.


Open market operations is the sale and purchase of government securities and treasury bills by RBI or the central bank of the country.

The objective of OMO is to regulate the money supply in the economy.

When the RBI wants to increase the money supply in the economy, it purchases the government securities from the market and it sells government securities to suck out liquidity from the system.

RBI carries out the OMO through commercial banks and does not directly deal with the public.

OMO is one of the tools that RBI uses to smoothen the liquidity conditions through the year and minimise its impact on the interest rate and inflation rate levels.


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