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Q.1 Consider the following statements
1. The process of removal of a State Election
Commissioner is similar to the removal of a
Judge of a State High Court.
2. A council of ministers must always exist to
advise the governor, even after the dissolution
of the state legislative assembly.
3. Article 356 can be invoked only on the written
recommendation of the cabinet
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
a) 2 only
b) 3 only
c) 1, 2
d) 1, 3
Solution: c)

Q.2 The primary motive of the colonial government
behind the policy of systematically deindustrialising
India was
1. To make India a mere exporter of important
raw materials for the modern industries in
2. To turn India into a sprawling market for the
finished products.
Select the correct answer code:
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Solution: c)

Q.3 Which of the following rivers does not flow through a
rift valley?
a) Tapti
b) Damodar
c) Narmada
d) Mahanadi
Solution: d)



A police head constable and four protesters died in violence that erupted over opposition to the Citizenship (Amendment) Act in the Jaffrabad, Maujpur and Bhajanpura areas of northeast Delhi on Monday.

The violence took a communal colour and spread to other parts of northeast Delhi as organised groups attacked each other, setting shops and vehicles on fire.

Tensions escalated hours before U.S. President Donald Trump was scheduled to reach Delhi for bilateral talks as part of his first state visit to India. While Mr. Trump will stay in central Delhi, more than 20 km from the violence, he is scheduled to travel to Rashtrapati Bhavan and Raj Ghat in Old Delhi.


The ACT seeks to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955 by seeking to grant citizenship to undocumented non-Muslims from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan who came to India on or before December 31, 2014.

The ACT says the six non-Muslim communities “shall not be treated as illegal migrant” for violating provisions under Passport Act, 1920 or the Foreigners Act, 1946 that pertains to foreigners entering and staying in India illegally.

The ACT shall not apply to tribal areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura as included in the sixth schedule of the Constitution and States of Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram , Manipur and Nagaland protected by the Inner Line Permit (ILP).

ACT has reduce the time period required for naturalization from 11 years to 5 years for members of these communities.


U.S. President Donald Trump, on his maiden two-day visit to India on Monday, heaped praise on Prime Minister Narendra Modi, calling him a “true friend”, and said his rise from a humble background as a tea-seller to India’s Prime Minister “underscores India’s limitless promise”.

The President also described Mr. Modi as a “tremendously successful leader”.

Defence sales and cooperation featured prominently in the speeches of Prime Minister Narendra Modi and U.S. President Donald Trump at the ‘Namaste Trump’ event in Ahmedabad on Monday. While announcing that defence deals worth around $3 billion would be signed during his visit, Mr. Trump offered a range of high-tech defence equipment to India.

The deals are for 24 MH-60R Multi-Role Helicopters for the Navy worth $2.2 billion and six AH-64E Apache attack helicopters for the Army worth $800 million. The other big ticket deals in the pipeline are for armed drones, an air defence system, MK-45 127mm naval guns and six more P-8I long-range maritime patrol aircraft among others.

As reported by The Hindu, the long-pending proposal to procure armed Predator drones from the U.S. for the three services is back on the table and the Qualitative Requirements are currently being finalised.

Energy deals are expected to be a key part of discussions between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and U.S. President Donald Trump on Tuesday, with talks over India’s increasing imports of American oil and gas, a clean energy deal including an MoU on building pipeline infrastructure for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) between American oil company ExxonMobil, gas transportation technology company Chart Industries and PSU Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL).

In 2019, India increased its intake of oil from the U.S. to about 1,84,000 barrels per day (bpd), a four-fold jump over 2018, and up from zero imports just four years ago.

Some of the increase is due to the fact that India had to slash imports from Iran and Venezuela under threat of sanctions from the U.S., but officials say the U.S. has tried to compensate by subsidizing oil transport costs.

India is now the world’s third largest oil importer, and it is estimated that every $1 change in the price of oil internationally has a $1 billion dollar impact on India’s energy bill.


A dissenter is not an anti-national. Holding a contrary view to that of the government does not make one an anti-national, according to Supreme Court judge Justice Deepak Gupta.

Justice Gupta made the observation during a lecture organised by the Supreme Court Bar Association on “Democracy and dissent” on Monday. His speech received a standing ovation.

A political party getting 51% mandate in the polls did not mean the other 49% of the country ought to remain silent for the next five years. “A democracy is for 100% of the people. Government is for everyone. Everyone plays a role in democracy,” he noted.

Justice Gupta’s words are significant against the background of protests over the Citizenship (Amendment) Act in various parts of the country, most prominently at Shaheen Bagh in the national capital.



The Jharkhand Janadhikar Mahasabha (JJM), a forum of progressive organisations, on Monday came down heavily on the ‘silence’ of the Hemant Soren government on the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, the National Register of Citizens and the National Population Register.

In a letter to Jharkhand CM signed by activists, including Jean Dreze, the JJM said, “The main purpose of the NPR is to lay the ground for NRC. The NRC is a wasteful exercise that is bound to lead to exclusion and harassment of large number of people especially poor as has already happened in Assam. It will wreak havoc on the poor of Jharkhand especially tribal, Dalit, Muslim and women. The combination of CAA and NRC could easily become a weapon to reduce many Muslims to second-class citizens.”

About National Population Register

  • Definition:
    • It is a list of “usual residents of the country”.
    • A “usual resident of the country” is one who has been residing in a local area for at least the last six months, or intends to stay in a particular location for the next six months.
  • Legal Provisions:
    • The NPR is being prepared under provisions of the Citizenship Act 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.
    • It is mandatory for every “usual resident of India” to register in the NPR.
  • Background:
    • The data for the NPR was first collected in 2010 along with the house listing phase of Census 2011.
    • In 2015, this data was further updated by conducting a door-to-door survey.



Bhopal gas tragedy survivors on Monday, the day United States President Donald Trump arrived in India, alleged he was refusing to serve summons issued repeatedly by a Bhopal court on the firm responsible for the world’s worst industrial disaster, while Prime Minister Narendra Modi had failed to press the U.S. government to act.

Accusing the Trump government of sheltering the Dow Chemical Company, which in 2001 had acquired Union Carbide, from whose pesticide plant here a methyl isocyanate leak in 1984 killed thousands and caused deformities and congenital diseases in lakhs, the demonstrators beat Mr. Trump’s effigy with brooms at the Iqbal Maidan in Bhopal.

Since 2016 when Mr. Trump came to power, the court had twice summoned the Dow Chemical Company, as the owner of Union Carbide is absconding on the charge of corporate manslaughter, said Rashida Bi, president, Bhopal Gas Peedit Mahila Stationery Karamchari Sangh. “But the U.S. Department of Justice has refused to serve these summons on the firm,” she said.


The Bhopal disaster, also referred to as the Bhopal gas tragedy, was a gas leak incident on the night of 2–3 December 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. It is considered to be the world’s worst industrial disaster.

Cause : Methyl Isocynate



The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is contemplating installing a wooden barricade around the stone chariot inside Vittala Temple complex at the UNESCO World Heritage site of Hampi in Karnataka in a bid to protect it from vandalism.

Vittala Temple is not only among the most-visited protected monuments at Hampi, but is also the most photographed. Art historians say it reflects a high degree of craftsmanship of the temple architecture that reached its zenith under the Vijayanagara rulers who reigned from 14th to 17th century CE.


Hampi, the city of ruins, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Hampi was the capital of the Vijayanagar empire around 1500 AD, and by some accounts, the second largest city in the world at that time.

It is located on the banks of the Tungabhadra River.

Famous for its massive, beautifully carved temples, especially the Virupaksha Temple, dedicated to the patron deity of the empire.

Among secular edifices, mention may be made of the Zenana enclosure wherein a massive stone basement of the Queen’s palace and ornate pavilion called ‘Lotus-Mahal’ are the only remnants of a luxurious ‘Antahpura’. The corner towers of arresting elevation, the Dhananayaka’s enclosure (treasury), the Mahanavami Dibba carrying beautifully sculptured panels, a variety of ponds and tanks, Mandapas, the elephant’s stables and the row of pillared Mandapas are some of the important architectural remains of Hampi.

Recent excavations at the Hampi have brought to light a large number of palatial complexes and basements of several platforms. Interesting finds include a large number of stone images, beautiful terra cotta objects and stucco figures that once embellished the palaces at Hampi.



As the Kalasa-Banduri Nala project in the Mahadayi basin drags on over the inter-State river water dispute, the cost over the last 20 years has risen from about ₹94 crore in 2000 to ₹1,677.30 crore now. Only a section of the project is nearing completion. Work on both the reservoirs is yet to be taken up as forest clearance is awaited.

When the Karnataka government on August 22, 2000 gave its administrative approval to the project — conceived to supply drinking water to areas in the Bombay Karnataka region — the estimated cost of Kalasa Nala was ₹44.78 crore, while that of Banduri Nala was ₹49.2 crore.

A latest estimate prepared by the Water Resources Department has put the cost at ₹885.8 and ₹791.5 crore respectively, taking the total to ₹1,677.3 crore.

  • Mahadayi or Mhadei, the west-flowing river, originates in Bhimgad Wildlife Sanctuary (Western Ghats), Belagavi district of Karnataka.
  • It is essentially a rain-fed riveralso called Mandovi in Goa.
  • It is joined by a number of streams to form the Mandovi which is one of two major rivers (the other one is Zuari river) that flows through Goa.
  • The river travels 35 km in Karnataka; 82 km in Goa before joining the Arabian Sea.

Kalasa-Banduri Nala Project

  • It is undertaken by the Government of Karnatakato improve drinking water supply to the three districts of Belagavi, Dharwad, and Gadag.
  • It involves building across Kalasa and Banduri, two tributaries of the Mahadayi riverto divert water to the Malaprabha river.
    • Malaprabha riversupplies the drinking water to Dharwad, Belgaum, and Gadag districts.
  • Kalasa-Banduri project was planned in 1989Goaraised an objection to it.
    • The Mahadayi Water Disputes Tribunalwas set up in 2010Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra are parties to the tribunal.



One year after the launch of the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi, the Centre has revised the farmer income support scheme’s beneficiary target down to just under 12 crore from 14 crore.

In fact, empirical evidence suggests that saturation level will reach around 10 crore families. So far, almost 8.5 crore farmers have benefited.

Speaking at an event to mark the first anniversary, Agriculture Minister Narendra Singh Tomar pointed to West Bengal and Bihar as the major culprits for the lag. While the West Bengal government has refused to join the scheme at all, the Bihar government’s approach of waiting for applicants means more than 60% of potential beneficiaries are yet to register.


The Central Sector Scheme, namely, the Pradhan Mantri KisanSamman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) provides income support to land-holding farmers’ families, subject to certain exclusions, by way of payment of Rs.6000/- per year.

The amount is released in three 4-monthly instalments of Rs.2000 /- each directly into the bank accounts of the beneficiaries through DBT mode.



The contentious Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019, has again triggered an ill-advised demand for dual citizenship to Tamil refugees from Sri Lanka.


There is no constitutional and legal position under which Government can grant dual citizenship.

Early this month, the government told the Rajya Sabha that neither the Constitution nor the CAA permitted dual citizenship. This ought to put an end to the debate, which will otherwise create false expectations among the refugees.


Centre should stop seeing Sri Lankan refugees as “illegal migrants”; they entered India with the knowledge and approval of Indian authorities.

As for those who wish to remain in India for studies or to earn a livelihood, the authorities should tweak the OCI Cardholder scheme or offer an exclusive long-term visa.

By this, the stay of 95,000-odd refugees in Tamil Nadu will be regularised. As for those keen on returning home but are unable to do so for want of support from Sri Lanka, New Delhi should lean on Colombo to help enable their early return.

Besides, the two countries should formulate a scheme of structured assistance to expedite voluntary repatriation, which is moving at a snail’s pace even a decade after the civil war ended.


Editorial has highlighted what could be the challenges for Bernie Sanders if he is chosen by the Democratic Party as Presidential candidates.

Bernie Sanders is senator from Vermont and self claimed DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST.

Editorial highlights that Bernie Sanders has advantage over other candidates as he is seen as ANTI ESTABLISHMENT and like Mr Trump he has the courage to against the expected party lines.


The challenge for Mr. Sanders  is to deepen his popularity among minorities: African-Americans, Latinos and other ethnicities.

Next challenge is carrying independent and undecided voters along with him in the presidential election.

Another challenge is reach out to the wider voter base without losing his core support



Recently at the at the inaugural session of the International Judicial Conference 2020, ‘Judiciary and the Changing World’ Justice Arun Mishra heaped praises on the PM Narendra Modi calling him a VERSATILE GENIUS AND VISIONARY LEADER  WHO THINKS INTERNATIONALLY AND ACT LOCALLY.

Many people have criticised Justice Mishra for such praises as this blurs the line of SEPARATION OF JUDICIARY FROM EXECUTIVE.


Independence of the judiciary is vital for the establishment of real participatory democracy, maintenance of the rule of law as a dynamic concept and delivery of social justice to the vulnerable sections of the community.

While the administration of justice draws its legal sanction from the Constitution, its credibility rests in the faith of the people. Indispensable to that faith is the independence of the judiciary… the framers of the Constitution took great pains to ensure that an even better and more effective judicial structure was incorporated in the Constitution, one which would meet the highest expectations of judicial independence

The independence of the Judges is the bastion for the people to reap the fruits of the democracy, liberty and justice and the antithesis rocks the bottom of the rule of law.

Independent Bar and Independent Bench form the backbone of the democracy.


The judiciary is fast eroding the hopes and aspirations of great men and women who sat in the Constituent Assembly debating and giving us the great document, the Constitution of India. Any correction, if at all, must come from within the judiciary.




Data Localisation refers to any restrictions on cross-border transfer of data (for instance, requirements to seek permission for transfer, the imposition of taxes for foreign transfers of data, etc.), has largely come to refer to the need to physically locate data within the country.


Sovereignty and government functions; referring to the need to recognise Indian data as a resource to be used to further national interest (economically and strategically), and to enable enforcement of Indian law and state functions.

The second claim is that economic benefits will accrue to local industry in terms of creating local infrastructure, employment and contributions to the AI ecosystem.

Finally, regarding the protection of civil liberties, the argument is that local hosting of data will enhance its privacy and security by ensuring Indian law applies to the data and users can access local remedies.


Author has highlighted that better Data Protection will not depend only on localisation rather there are various other factors that will ensure better data protection.

Security of data is determined more by the technical measures, skills, cybersecurity protocols, etc. put in place rather than its mere location. Localisation may make it easier for domestic surveillance over citizens. However, it may also enable the better exercise of privacy rights by Indian citizens against any form of unauthorised access to data, including by foreign intelligence.

Overall, the degree of protection afforded to data will depend on the effectiveness of the applicable data protection regime.


The joint parliamentary committee currently examining the Personal Data Protection Bill should conduct a more in-depth evaluation of the localisation provisions in the law.

The joint parliamentary committee ought to, ideally, identify the need, purpose and practicality of putting in place even the (relatively liberal) measures contained in the PDP Bill.

Further, in order for localisation-related norms to bear fruit, either in terms of protecting citizen rights, enabling law enforcement access to data or enabling development of the local economy, there has to be broader thinking at the policy level. This may include for instance, reforming surveillance related laws, entering into more detailed and up-to-date mutual legal assistance treaties, enabling the development of sufficient digital infrastructure, and creating appropriate data-sharing policies that preserve privacy and other third party rights, while enabling data to be used for socially useful purposes.



The Delhi High Court has directed the Enforcement Directorate (ED) to return with interest the sum of ₹7.95 lakh “illegally” seized from a travel agency owner nearly 25 years ago for alleged violation of foreign exchange law.

About Enforcement Directorate

Directorate of Enforcement is a specialized financial investigation agency under the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, Government of India.

On 1 May 1956, an ‘Enforcement Unit’ was formed, in Department of Economic Affairs, for handling Exchange Control Laws violations under Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947.

In the year 1957, this Unit was renamed as ‘Enforcement Directorate’.

ED enforces the following laws:

Foreign Exchange Management Act,1999 (FEMA)

Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA)

How does Money Laundering take place?

Money laundering is a three-stage process :

Placement: The first stage is when the crime money is injected into the formal financial system.

Layering: In the second stage, money injected into the system is layered and spread over various transactions with a view to obfuscate the tainted origin of the money.

Integration: In the third and the final stage, money enters the financial system in such a way that original association with the crime is sought to be wiped out and the money can then be used by the offender as clean money.




In this article author has criticized the Indo-Pacific strategy of US and several other initiatives of the US government.

There are mainly three other countries in the Indo Pacific strategy of US: INDIA, JAPAN AND AUSTRALIA.

Author highlights that Indo Pacific strategy of US has only one thing  to isolate China. There is nothing else to it.

The U.S. government has made it clear that what it finds most objectionable is China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which has signed on more than 70 countries in the world. Adopted in 2013, the BRI is intended as a mechanism to end China’s reliance upon the markets of the West and to develop new markets in other continents; it is also intended to use China’s massive surpluses to build infrastructure in key parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

By 2027, according to estimates by Morgan Stanley, China will spend about $1.3 trillion on this ambitious construction project. Even Saudi Arabia, a close ally of the U.S., has made the BRI one of the cornerstones of its Saudi Vision 2030 plan. While China has invested $68 billion to build the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor from Xinjiang to Pakistan’s Gwadar Port, Saudi Arabia has agreed to invest $10 billion in the port itself.

Author highlights that US says that it is more transparent than China but evidence suggest to the contrary.

Libraries are filled with documents that show how the U.S. government enabled a massive Third World debt crisis in the 1980s, which was then used by the U.S.-driven International Monetary Fund’s Structural Adjustment Programs to strangle countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This history is alive, and it makes a mockery of the U.S.’s attempt to say that its own approach is superior to that of China’s.


As the military aspect of the Strategy increased, both Australia and Japan edged away from full-scale adoption of the U.S. project. Japan has begun to use the term “Indo-Pacific” without the word “Strategy”, while Australia has signed onto a “comprehensive strategic partnership” with China. Only India remains loyal to the agenda set by U.S. President Donald Trump, who has arrived here with nothing but a bag full of tricks. In all the documents released by the U.S. government and in all the speeches by officials, there is no discussion of the strategy to contain China. There is only rhetoric that skates into belligerent territory.


India would be advised to study the U.S. project rather than jump into it eagerly. Room for an independent foreign policy for India is already narrowed, and room for an independent trade policy is equally suffocated. To remain the


U.S. President Donald Trump’s first official visit to India could lead to significant outcomes.


Today, the two countries are collaborating on issues ranging from maritime security to international terrorism, and have recently signed a number of agreements, including the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) and the Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA), to push the levels of strategic collaboration to wider fields. In the last few years, the U.S. has categorised India as a ‘Major Defense Partner’ and granted it the ‘Strategic Trade Authorisation-1’ status.


Trade between the two countries has reached a new high. Total two-way trade flows increased to $142.3 billion in 2018, with 2019 figures estimated to be even higher, inclusive of India’s recent liquefied natural gas (LNG) and aircraft purchases. This is expected to go up further with India agreeing to buy naval helicopters from the U.S.

Steady inflows of capital from the U.S. attest to India’s attractiveness as an investment destination for American companies. The U.S. is the fifth-largest source of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) to India, with a cumulative capital stock of $28 billion.

For their part, Indian companies are expanding their investments in the U.S. as well, with the CII’s data reflecting historic rates of investment and job creation, numbering over $18 billion and 1,13,000, respectively.

In the defence sector, India has built up its sourcing from the U.S. The recent 2+2 dialogue led to three agreements being inked under the Defense Technology and Trade Initiative to co-develop and co-produce critical technologies. With India’s aspiration to invite FDI in its nascent defence production sector, U.S. companies will have good options for tie-ups with Indian businesses.


While these sectors will continue to dominate the India-U.S. bilateral relationship for the next few years, an aspirational knowledge economy can be envisioned as the way for partnerships ahead. Such an economy would be based on high-technology exports, robotics, artificial intelligence (AI), electric vehicles, and other emerging sectors.

As digital transformation becomes the new strategy for enterprises across the globe, Indian and U.S. companies can join hands to shape lives, businesses, and value propositions. Artificial intelligence is likely to dominate the business space in coming years, and India and the U.S. can drive this phenomenon with capacity building of both people and enterprises. Start-up collaborations between two of the most vibrant and dynamic new entrepreneurship hubs can be identified for areas such as agriculture, healthcare and education.



Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad resigned on Monday in a shock move after his political allies sought to bring down the government and block the succession of leader-in-waiting Anwar Ibrahim.

It came after months of rising tensions in the “Pact of Hope” coalition, which stormed to a shock victory in 2018 against a corruption-plagued government that had ruled Malaysia for six decades.

But there were calls for Mr. Mahathir, the world’s oldest leader at 94, to stay in office from allies, who insisted he had not backed the formation of a new government and had quit in disgust at the plot.


LOCATION: South East  Asia

Malaysia is  separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo).

Capital: Kuala Lumpur



Q. Rajghat is the memorial of


Q. Taj Mahal was built by


Q. Rai is the folk dance of which tribe


Q. Which country has recently banned the consumption and trade of wild animals


Q. Name the chief of the United Nations


Q. Women T 20 World Cup 2020 is being held in


Q. Ankita Raina is the famous player of


Q. Who has been elected as Leader of Opposition in Delhi Assembly


Q. Name the world’s third largest importer of oil



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