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THE HINDU DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS 28TH FEBRUARY 2020

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Q.1 Consider the following statements.
1. The first Five Year Plan was based on the ideas of Mahalanobis, which laid down the basic ideas regarding goals of Indian planning.
2. The Second Five Year Plan tried to build the basis for a socialist pattern of society.
3. In the first seven five-year plans, trade was characterised by import substitution strategy.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?
a) 1, 2
b) 1, 3
c) 2, 3
d) 1, 2, 3

Q.2 Which of the following statement best describes ‘transfer pricing’?
a) The tax that both resident and non-resident Indians need to pay while transferring the shares of a company they own in some other nation to that in India.
b) It is a tax that is levied on retrospective deals made in the transfer of a company from one nation to the
other.
c) Transfer pricing is the setting of the price for goods and services sold between controlled legal entities  within an enterprise.
d) None of the statements (a), (b), (c) are correct.

Q.3 Consider the following statements regarding Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
1. It conducts its own research for assessing Climate change.
2. It is a joint initiative of World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and United Nations Development Programme.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

1)ABOUT CBI:

Central Bureau of Investigation was set up in 1963 by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs.

Establishment of CBI was recommended by Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962-64).

CBI is not a statutory body and derives its power from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946.

With the enactment of the CVC Act 2003 superintendence of the CBI vests with the central government save investigations of offences under Prevention of Corruption Act 1988 in which the superintendence vests with the Central Vigilance Commission.

Director of the CBI has been provided with the security of two year tenure in office by the CVC Act 2003.

Under the Lokpal and Lokayukta Act of 2013 central government shall appoint the Director of the CBI on the recommendation of a three member committee consisting of the Prime Minister as the Chairperson, Leader of the opposition party in the Lok Sabha and Chief Justice of India or the judge of Supreme Court appointed by him.

CBI acts as the National Central Bureau of Interpol in India.

2)National Green Tribunal was formed under the National Green Tribunal Act of 2010. Act was enacted under the India’s constitutional provision of Article 21 which assures the citizens of India the right to healthy environment.

Tribunal has been created for effective and expeditious disposal of the cases relating to environmental protection and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith and incidental thereto.

Tribunal is mandated to make endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals filing within 6 months of the filing of the same.

Chairman of the tribunal must be a serving or retired Chief Justice of a High Court or judge of the Supreme Court of India.

The tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid under the Code of Civil Procedure 1908 but shall be guided by the principles of natural justice.

New Delhi is the principle place of sitting of the tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkatta and Chennai are other four places of sitting of the tribunal.

Present NGT Chairperson is Justice (Retired) Adarsh Kumar Goel.

3)U.P. pollution control body pulled up for Ganga’s plight

 

Why In News:- The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has pulled up the Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control Board (UPPCB) for its inability to prevent drains in Kanpur from polluting the Ganga.

About CPCB:-

Central Pollution Control Board is a statutory organization under Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change.

It was established in 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974.

It serves as field formation and also provides technical services to the MOEFCC under the provisions of the Environment Protection Act 1986.

It coordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards and guide them and resolves disputes between them.

Some Terms used in the News:-

i) BOD: Biochemical oxygen demand is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period.

ii) DO: Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a measure of how much oxygen is dissolved in the water – the amount of oxygen available to living aquatic organisms. The amount of dissolved oxygen in a stream or lake can tell us a lot about its water quality.

4)India to carry out projects in Rakhine:- India will carry out more development projects in the Rakhine province of Myanmar, which is considered the homeland of the Rohingya community. The decision was taken during the state visit of President U Win Myint of Myanmar. He is paying a four day visit from February 26 to 29.

Rakhine has been in the news because of Myanmar military’s campaign against the Rohingya who were forced to live in refugee camps in Bangladesh.

One of the main purpose of India’s developmental work is aimed at creating hospitable conditions for the Rohingya community.

About Rakhine State :- Rakhine State is a state in Myanmar. Situated on the western coast, it is bordered by Chin State to the north, Magway Region, Bago Region and Ayeyarwady Region to the east, the Bay of Bengal to the west and the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh to the northwest.

5)Lockheed to deliver six MH-60R copters in 2021:- Lockheed Martin will deliver six MH-60R Multi-Role Helicopters (MRH) to the Navy in 2021 and the order would be completed by 2025, sources said on Thursday.

The deal, worth around $2.2 billion, was signed early this week during the visit of U.S. President Donald Trump.

EDITORIALS :-

Lead : Aadhaar, no standout performer in welfare delivery

What has been Discussed in the Editorial : Aadhaar based biometric authentication did not reduce PDS leakages finds Jharkhand based empirical study.

Why was Aadhar System Introduced:- When Aadhaar was conceived a decade ago, the rationale postulated was: India spends nearly three trillion rupees a year across several core welfare programmes such as Public Distribution System (PDS), LPG, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act etc; roughly 30-40% of this is lost in leakages; leakages are largely due to ‘ghost’ and ‘duplicate’ beneficiaries using fake identities to avail these benefits a unique identity biometric scheme can eliminate these leakages and vastly improve efficiency in welfare delivery.

What Did the Study in Jharkhand Found Out :The study concluded that Aadhaar-based biometric authentication had no measurable benefit.Aadhaar-based biometric authentication did not reduce leakages due to elimination of ghosts and duplicates, as widely perceived.
On the other hand, they found that Aadhaar-based biometric authentication increased transaction costs for beneficiaries.

That is, to claim ration worth Rs.7 of costs than those in the old system, because of multiple trips to authenticate themselves and the opportunity cost of time spent. This is a whopping 17% extra cost burden of the value of the benefit they were entitled to receive.

To make matters worse, Aadhaar-based biometric authentication also introduced what empirical scientists call Type I error of exclusion. In simple terms, Aadhaar authentication falsely rejected genuine PDS beneficiaries who were then denied their ration supplies.

The study finds that nearly 10% of legitimate beneficiaries were denied their ration either because they did not have their Aadhaar linked to their ration card or due to an exclusion error.

In summary, the study states that there was no direct impact of Aadhaar in reducing leakages but it denied ration to 10% of genuine beneficiaries and increased costs by 17% to those that were forced to get their ration using Aadhaar.

2) Editorial 2: A browning east

What’s the Editorial About : Climate Change and the impact on the Eastern Ghats

If the Western Ghats are the crown jewels of India’s natural heritage, the Eastern Ghats spread across some 75,000 sq. km. from Odisha to southern Tamil Nadu, play an important dual role: fostering biodiversity and storing energy in trees. In these mountains exist a reservoir of about 3,000 flowering plant species, nearly 100 of them endemic, occurring in the dry deciduous, moist deciduous and semievergreen landscapes.

Many animals, including tigers and elephants, and some 400 bird species are found in these discontinuous forests that receive an annual average rainfall of 1,200 mm to 1,500 mm. Crucially, many parts, primarily in Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, provide forest produce and ecosystem services to millions.

new research findings arguing that the Ghats face a serious threat from climate change, and temperature variations are a cause for worry. It is noteworthy that a disruption of the annual average temperature and diminished rainfall would rob the productivity of
these forests, in terms of their ability to store carbon, and provide subsistence material.

Protecting the Eastern Ghats, which are separated by powerful rivers — the Godavari and Krishna, to name just two — is an ecological imperative. India is committed, under the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion
tonnes through enhanced forest and tree cover. Yet, forest protection policies have often failed dismally. By some estimates, the Ghats have shrunk by 16% over the past century, and just one region, Papikonda National Park, lost about 650 sq. km. in two decades from 1991.

6)EU (European Union) : The European Union is a group of 27 countries that operate as a cohesive economic and political block.

19 of these countries use EURO as their official currency. 8 EU members (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Sweden) do not use the euro.

Evolution : In 1952, European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded under Treaty of Paris (1951).

European Court of Justice (called “Court of Justice of the European Communities” until 2009) was also established in 1952 under Paris Treaty.

European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation established by the Euratom Treaty (1957)

European Economic Community (EEC) was created by the Treaty of Rome (1957). The Community’s initial aim was to bring about economic integration. It ceased to exist by Lisbon Treaty-2007 and its activities were incorporated in EU.

Schengen Agreement (1985) paved the way for the creation of open borders without passport controls between most member states. It was effective in 1995.

The Maastricht Treaty-1992 (also called the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. It received a great push with the end of the Cold War.

European Communities (ECSC, EAEC, and EEC) incorporated as European Union.

It established the European Central Bank (ECB).

The Treaty of Lisbon 2007: European Community (now composed only of EEC, EAEC, as ECSC already ceased in 2002) was ceased and its activities incorporated in EU.

In 2012, the EU received the Nobel Peace Prize for having “contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy, and human rights in Europe.

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