Q.1 Which of the following is not the work of Sea Waves?
- Sea Arches
- Mushroom Rocks
- Sea Caves
Q.2 Which of these rocks is SEDIMENTARY ROCK?
Q.3 Which of the following is not a local wind?
- Sea Breeze
- Land Breeze
CITIZENSHIP AMENDMENT BILL 2019
NEWS: The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi cleared the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 on Wednesday paving the way for its introduction in Parliament on December 9.
WHAT DOES THE BILL CONTAINS?
The Bill seeks to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955 by seeking to grant citizenship to undocumented non-Muslims from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan who came to India on or before December 31, 2014.
The purpose of the Bill says that it will enable acquisition of Indian citizenship by persons who were forced to seek shelter in India due to persecution or fear of it on grounds of religion and will extend the facility to the class of persons presently facing hardships and difficulties in acquiring citizenship.
The Bill says the six non-Muslim communities “shall not be treated as illegal migrant” for violating provisions under Passport Act, 1920 or the Foreigners Act, 1946 that pertains to foreigners entering and staying in India illegally.
The Bill shall not apply to tribal areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura as included in the sixth schedule of the Constitution and States of Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland protected by the Inner Line Permit (ILP).
Citizens of other States require ILP to visit the three States as per the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873.
ABOUT INNER LINE PERMIT
Inner Line Permit (ILP) is an official travel document issued by the Government of India to allow travel of an Indian citizen into a protected area for a limited period. It is obligatory for Indian citizens from outside certain states, to obtain such a permit.
At present, the ILP is in force in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland. In Manipur, large scale protests have called for its implementation for years.
Under the ILP system, a certificate can be issued to outsiders only for travel in the areas covered by ILP. A non-resident also cannot buy property in these areas.
AIR QUALITY INDEX:
NEWS: The air quality of the city inched closer to ‘very poor’ category on Wednesday, chiefly owing to slower winds. The air pollution is expected to increase on Thursday and touch ‘severe’ category in parts of Delhi on Friday, said government-run monitoring agency System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR).
ABOUT AIR QUALITY INDEX:
Air Quality Index is a number used by the government agencies to communicate
to the public how polluted air currently is and how polluted it is expected to
There are six AQI categories, namely Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted,
Poor, Very Poor, and Severe.
AQI considers eight pollutants
- NH3, and
Air Quality Index was launched by Central Pollution Control Board under Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change.
ARTICLES RELATED TO GOVERNOR
NEWS: West Bengal Governor Jagdeep Dhankhar on Wednesday took on the State government through social media saying he was “neither a rubber stamp nor a post office”, and was obligated to scrutinise Bills in the light of the Constitution.
FACTS ABOUT GOVERNOR
Article 153: Governors of States There shall be Governor for each State: Provided that nothing in this article shall prevent the appointment of the same person as Governor for two or more States
Article 155: Governor is appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.
It is an independent constitutional office and is not under the control of or subordinate to the Central Government.
Qualification for Governor (Article 157)
- Citizen of India
- Should have completed 35 years of age
Oath (Article 159) : administered by the Chief Justice of High Court
- faithfully execute the office of Governor
- preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law
- devote myself to the service and well being of the people
NEWS: Less than 3% of this season’s sanctioned amount of pulses and oilseeds have actually been procured so far under the once-hyped PM-AASHA scheme, Agriculture Ministry data show. Arrivals of these crops began in October and will end by February.
A total of 37.59 lakh metric tonnes of procurement had been sanctioned under the Centrally-funded scheme.
However, only 1.08 lakh tonnes have been procured so far, according to data placed in the Lok Sabha on Tuesday. In fact, of the eleven States that opted for the scheme this season, procurement has not even started in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha.
ABOUT PM AASHA
“Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan’ (PM-AASHA).
The Scheme is aimed at ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers for their produce .
The new Umbrella Scheme includes the mechanism of ensuring remunerative prices to the farmers and is comprised of
- Price Support Scheme (PSS),
- Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS)
- Pilot of Private Procurement & Stockist Scheme (PPPS).
In Price Support Scheme (PSS), physical procurement of pulses, oilseeds and Copra will be done by Central Nodal Agencies with proactive role of State governments. It is also decided that in addition to NAFED, Food Cooperation of India (FCI) will take up PSS operations in states /districts. The procurement expenditure and losses due to procurement will be borne by Central Government as per norms.
Under Price Deficiency Payment Scheme this scheme (PDPS), it is proposed to cover all oilseeds for which MSP is notified. In this direct payment of the difference between the MSP and the selling/modal price will be made to pre-registered farmers selling his produce in the notified market yard through a transparent auction process.
All payment will be done directly into registered bank account of the farmer. This scheme does not involve any physical procurement of crops as farmers are paid the difference between the MSP price and Sale/modal price on disposal in notified market. The support of central government for PDPS will be given as per norms.
NEWS: India must be non-reciprocal and generous with smaller neighbours of South Asia, said External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar at an event to celebrate the centenary of late Prime Minister Inder Kumar Gujral here.
The Minister said the Gujral Doctrine was crafted in the 1990s when relationship with Pakistan had “some optimism”, which has eroded after the series of cross-border terror attacks.
ABOUT GUJRAL DOCTRINE
The Gujral Doctrine is a milestone in India’s foreign policy. It was propounded and initiated in 1996 by I.K. Gujral, the then Foreign Minister in the Deve Gowda Government.
The doctrine advocates that India, being the biggest country in South Asia, should extend unilateral concessions to the smaller neighbours.
The doctrine is a five-point roadmap to guide the conduct of India’s foreign relations with its immediate neighbours.
These five principles are as follows:
- With the neighbous like Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka, India should not ask for reciprocity, but give to them what it can in good faith.
- No South Asian country should allow its territory to be used against the interest of another country of the region.
- No country should interfere in the internal affairs of another country.
- All South Asian countries should respect each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- All South Asian countries should settle all their disputes through peaceful bilateral negotiations.
NEWS: The U.S. House of Representatives on Tuesday overwhelmingly approved a Bill that would require the Trump administration to toughen its response to China’s crackdown on its Muslim minority, drawing swift condemnation from Beijing.
The Uighur Bill, which passed by 407-1 in the Democratic-controlled House, requires the U.S. President to condemn abuses against Muslims and call for the closure of mass detention camps in the northwestern region of Xinjiang.
The Uighurs are a Muslim ethnic minority mostly based in China’s Xinjiang province. They make up around 45% of the population there. Xinjiang is officially designated as an autonomous region within China, like Tibet to its south.
Human rights groups including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have submitted reports to the UN committee documenting claims of mass imprisonment, in camps where inmates are forced to swear loyalty to China’s President Xi Jinping.
GLOBAL CLIMATE RISK INDEX
NEWS: Global Climate Risk Index, published on Wednesday by environmental think-tank Germanwatch, rated Japan as the most-affected country in 2018, while Germany was in third position.
Both of the industrialised nations were hit hard by heatwaves and drought that year, as was India — in fifth position — which suffered water shortages, crop failures and worst flooding,
BHARAT BOND ETF
NEWS: The Union Cabinet on Wednesday approved the government’s plan to create and launch India’s first corporate bond exchange traded fund (ETF) — Bharat Bond ETF.
WHAT IS ETF?
Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) are mutual funds listed and traded on stock exchanges like shares.
The ETF will comprise a basket of bonds issued by the CPSEs, CPSUs, CPFIs, and other government organisations and all will be initially AAA-rated bonds.
The unit size of the bond has been kept at just ₹1,000 so that retail investors can invest
Each ETF will have a fixed maturity date and initially they will be issued in two series, of three years and 10 years.
To create an additional source of funding for Central Public Sector Undertakings (CPSUs), Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs), Central Public Financial Institutions (CPFIs), and other government organisations,
DATA PROTECTION BILL
NEWS: The Union Cabinet on Wednesday approved the introduction of the Personal Data Protection Bill in Parliament,
The draft bill, the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018, was prepared by a high-level expert committee headed by former Supreme Court judge B.N. Srikrishna.
The Bill deals with the broad guidelines on the collection, storage, and processing of personal data, the consent of individuals, penalties and compensation, and a code of conduct.
The draft Bill classifies ‘sensitive personal data’ as including passwords, financial data, health data, sex life, sexual orientation, biometric data, genetic data, transgender status, intersex status, caste or tribe, and religious or political belief or affiliation.
The draft Bill says that such sensitive personal data can be processed only with the explicit consent of the person, and this consent needs to be informed, clear, and specific, as defined by the Bill itself.
The draft bill also has a provision for the right to be forgotten, where the person “shall have the right to restrict or prevent continuing disclosure of personal data”.
Personal data is to be stored in India, but can be processed outside with the consent of the person.
The draft Bill also specifies penalties for not following its provisions, including a penalty of ₹5 crore or 2% of turnover, whichever is higher, if no action is taken on a data leak.
ISSUE: CREAMY LAYER FOR SC/ST
WHY IN NEWS?
The Union government has called upon the Supreme Court to form a seven-judge Bench to reconsider the formulation in M. Nagaraj vs Union of India (2006) that it should be applied to the SC and ST communities.
WHAT WAS SAID IN THE NAGRAJ CASE?
While upholding Constitution amendments meant to preserve reservation in promotions as well as consequential seniority in M Nagraj Case Supreme Court ruled that following conditions should be met:
- ‘quantifiable data’ to show the backwardness of a community,
- the inadequacy of its representation in service,
- and the lack of adverse impact on “the overall efficiency of administration”.
JARNAIL SINGH CASE
In Jarnail Singh (2018), another Constitution Bench reaffirmed the applicability of creamy layer norms to SC/STs. On this ground, it felt that Nagaraj did not merit reconsideration.
However, it ruled that Nagaraj was wrong to require a demonstration of backwardness for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes, as it was directly contrary to the nine-judge Bench judgment in Indra Sawhney (1992), which had laid down that there is no need for a test of backwardness for SC/STs, as “they indubitably fall within the expression ‘backward class of citizens’.”
Another landmark verdict in the history of affirmative action jurisprudence may be needed to settle these questions.
ISSUE: SAVING DEMOCRACY FROM THE POPULISM
Author highlights that if establishing democracy required replacing unelected elites with the representatives of the ‘people’, then preserving democracy requires defending it against the ‘people’.
Democracy requires two things: rulers who reflect the majority’s choice, and respect for those in the minority.
For protecting the minority rights constitutional democracy becomes important.
If the majority’s interests are represented by the government, then the minority’s rights must be protected by institutions of the state capable of checking government action that infringes upon minority rights.
Author highlights that populist leaders are against the constitutional democracy.
Populists accuse counter-majoritarian checks and balances on executive authority, as anti-national. Indeed, rather than guardians of liberty, judges and journalists are portrayed as anti-majority, against the will of the people, and therefore fundamentally anti-democratic.
The media is choked and vilified until the only rational response is to be a mouthpiece for the government rather than its adversary; much easier to hide behind the flag than to defend it.
Democracies work best when we remember that there is no one people and no one party or politician has a monopoly on knowing what the people want. Unless today’s winners can expect and accept that they might be tomorrow’s losers, electoral democracy is doomed. And unless today’s losers can have confidence that their rights will be defended by democratic counter-majoritarian institutions, they have no reason to keep faith with elections. When that happens, the populists win, the people lose, and democracy dies.
FLAWS IN THE INDIAN HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM
India’s higher education system is structurally flawed and underfunded.
This crisis will affect innovation and human capital, the two pillars of labour productivity and GDP growth, while cheating India’s largest demographic of its potential.
LACK OF SKILL: The latest ‘India Skills Report’ suggests that only 47% of Indian graduates are employable — a problem exacerbated by startlingly low faculty figures.
LACK OF FACULTY: Faculty vacancies at government institutions are at 50% on average.
SEPARATION OF RESEARCH AND TRAINING ACTIVITIES: depriving students of exposure to cutting-edge ideas.
Indian R&D expenditure at 0.62% of GDP is one of the lowest in emerging economies. It is not surprising, then, that Indian universities rank low in both research and teaching. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, at rank 155, was our highest in the Scimago Institutions Rankings (SIR) for research while six Chinese institutes figured in the top 50.
MONEY LAUNDERING: is the process of making large amounts of money generated by a criminal activity, such as drug trafficking or terrorist funding, appear to have come from a legitimate source.
Google CEO: Sundar Pichai
Larry Page and Sergey Brin: co- founder of Google
Anti Trust: preventing or controlling trusts or other monopolies, and so promoting fair competition in business.